NSA May Have Used Equation Group To Indulge In Illegal E-Surveillance: Kaspersky Lab

NSA May Have Used Equation Group To Indulge In Illegal E-Surveillance Kaspersky LabHardware and software based malware are very common these days. They have also become the favourite tool of intelligence agencies around the world to snoop upon their targets. Kaspersky Lab recently revealed that intelligence agencies used hardware based stealth malware to do eavesdropping upon targets of interest. Similarly, it has also been reported that the pre installing of Adware in laptops by Lenovo compromised the cyber security of these infected laptops.

Now Kaspersky Lab has further reveled that the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) may have been planting surveillance software into hard drives and other essential computer equipment sold around the world for more than a decade through Equation Group. The Equation Group manipulated hard drives manufactured by Toshiba, Seagate, IBM, Western Digital and others dating back as far as 2001.

This has serious national security, telecom security and civil liberties implications around the world. For instance, Indian government has still not notified the norms for import of telecom equipments in India and has been postponing the same from time to time. This means such malware ridden hardware can be easily imported into India and they can be dangerously deployed for critical infrastructures (PDF). In fact, Huawei was accused of breaching national security of India by hacking base station controller in AP. Even the national cyber security policy of India 2013 is not at all effective in meeting the cyber security requirements of India.

Costin Raiu, Kaspersky’s lead researcher on the project, informed that while the Equation Group was able to steal files on any of the infected computers, they assumed full control only of computers used by high-value targets. Malicious firmware and BIOS are also big security threats for all stakeholders. Persistent BIOS infection using hidden rootkit is especially annoying and a major cyber security threat for India.

India needs to develop both offensive and defensive cyber security capabilities to tackle sophisticated cyber attacks. Cyber security breaches are increasing world over and India has its own share of the same. In this inter connected world, cyber security has become a major challenge for all countries. As on date the international legal issues of cyber attacks have yet to be resolved.

There are many cyber security challenges before the Narendra Modi Government. As per the cyber security trends of India 2015 by Perry4Law Organisation (P4LO), India needs to take urgent steps to strengthen its cyber security infrastructure. We believe that cyber security should be an integral part of the national security of India.

Narendra Modi Government has already started working in this direction. The Prime Minister Office (PMO) has already appointed Dr. Gulshan Rai as the first chief information security officer (CISO) of India. This is a significant step in the direction of strengthening of cyber security infrastructure of India.

Secondly, Narendra Modi has suggested to Nasscom that a task force be set up to solve the growing cyber security menace in India. According to Nasscom the taskforce would be constituted within a period of one month. We believe such a task force would provide valuable suggestions and implementation plans to strengthen Indian cyber security.

However, it would not be an easy task to ward off sophisticated and stealth malware that are the real problem for India. We at Centre of Excellence for Cyber Security Research and Development in India (CECSRDI) strongly recommend that indigenous capabilities in the hardware and software development must be developed by India to avoid possible malware and backdoors. We also recommend that a new cyber security policy of India 2015 must be urgently formulated by Indian Government keeping in mind the requirement and need of a techno legal framework in India.

Analysis Of National Cyber Security Policy Of India 2013 (NCSP-2013) And Indian Cyber Security Infrastructure

Analysis Of National Cyber Security Policy Of India 2013 (NCSP-2013) And Indian Cyber Security InfrastructureThe National Cyber Security Policy of India 2013 (NCSP 2013) (PDF) was announced by Indian Government in 2013. The policy aims to build a secure and resilient cyberspace for citizens, business and government. Perry4Law Organisation and Perry4Law’s Techno Legal Base (PTLB) welcome this initiative of Indian government that can help in strengthening of Indian cyber security infrastructure.

The mission of the policy is to protect information and information infrastructure in cyberspace, build capabilities to prevent and respond to cyber threat, reduce vulnerabilities and minimise damage from cyber incidents through a combination of institutional structures, people, processes, technology and cooperation.

The objectives of the policy are:

(a) To create a secure cyber ecosystem in the country, generate adequate trust and confidence in IT system and transactions in cyberspace and thereby enhance adoption of IT in all sectors of the economy.

(b) To create an assurance framework for design of security policies and promotion and enabling actions for compliance to global security standards and best practices by way of conformity assessment (Product, process, technology & people).

(c) To strengthen the Regulatory Framework for ensuring a Secure Cyberspace Ecosystem.

(d) To enhance and create National and Sectoral level 24×7 mechanism for obtaining strategic information regarding threats to ICT infrastructure, creating scenarios for response, resolution and crisis management through effective predictive, preventive, protective response and recovery actions.

(e) To improve visibility of integrity of ICT products and services by establishing infrastructure for testing & validation of security of such product.

(f) To create workforce for 5, 00,000 professionals skilled in next 5 years through capacity building skill development and training.

(g) To provide fiscal benefit to businesses for adoption of standard security practices and processes.

(h) To enable Protection of information while in process, handling, storage & transit so as to safeguard privacy of citizen’s data and reducing economic losses due to cyber crime or data theft.

(i) To enable effective prevention, investigation and prosecution of cyber crime and enhancement of law enforcement capabilities through appropriate legislative intervention.

Some of the shortcomings of the policy are:

(1) The declared cyber security policy has proved to be a paper work alone with no actual implementation till date.

(2) The cyber security trends and developments in India 2013 (PDF) have listed the shortcomings of Indian cyber security policy in general and Indian cyber security initiatives in particular.

(3) Indian cyber security policy has failed to protect civil liberties of Indians including privacy rights.

(4) Civil liberties protection in cyberspace has been blatantly ignored by Indian government and e-surveillance projects have been kept intact by the Narendra Modi government.

(5) The offensive and defensive cyber security capabilities of India are still missing.

(6) India is considered to be a sitting duck in cyberspace and cyber security field and the proposed cyber security policy has failed to change this position.

In short, India is not at all cyber prepared despite the contrary claims and declared achievements and the cyber security policy is just another policy document with no actual implementation and impact so far. Nevertheless, the policy is a positive step in the right direction.

Some of the related areas where Indian cyber security initiatives needs strengthening include international cyber security cooperation (PDF), critical ICT infrastructure protection (PDF), formulation of a cyber warfare policy of India (PDF), formulation of an encryption policy of India (PDF), reenactment of Indian cyber and telegraph laws, etc.

Meanwhile, India has been witnessing some new concerns and areas in the cyber field. For instance, cyber insurance, participation at Wassenaar Arrangement, intelligence agencies reforms, modernisation of police force, cyber security of banks, etc are some of the recent areas and developments that India has witnessed. Similarly, establishment of national cyber coordination centre (NCCC) of India and national critical information infrastructure protection centre of India (NCIIPC) are also good initiatives on the part of Indian government. The National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) has also been entrusted with the duty to protect critical infrastructures of India.

The cyber security challenges in India would increase in the future as India has adopted the Digital India initiative and India must be well prepared to deal with the same. The sooner it is done the better it would be for the interest of our nation.

National Cyber Security And Coordination Centre (NCSC) Of India Under Consideration

Shri. Ravi Shankar Prasad, Minister of Telecommunications and Information TechnologyCyber security has never been a priority for Indian government. The cyber security trends and developments in India 2013 (PDF) have depicted this sad position of India cyber security. At this stage when the national cyber security issues are ignored by India it is very difficult to manage international legal issues of cyber attacks. The conflict of laws in cyberspace has added their own techno legal complicities to this situation. As a result India is considered to be a soft target and sitting duck in cyberspace.

Now there are some positive reports that cyber security in India would be strengthened. Cyber security has been made part and parcel of a larger initiative known as “Digital India”. In the past, a National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) of India was proposed by Indian government. However, it remained on books alone as it was never constituted till now.

In January 2014 the Congress Government decided to launch the NCCC. However, NCCC never saw the light of the day. Now BJP Government is planning to launch the NCCC very soon. We at Perry4Law and Perry4Law’s Techno Legal Base (PTLB) welcome this move of Narendra Modi Government. There would be inter-ministerial discussions, before sending the proposal to the Cabinet. The Government is expected to send the proposal to the Cabinet in the next 15 days.

The NCCC proposal is a significant development as both NCCC and the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIPC) of India have failed to function properly so far. This has severely impacted the critical Infrastructure Protection in India (PDF). Perhaps, this is a good time to formulate Critical ICT Infrastructure Protection Policy of India as well. As an interim measure, it has been decided in the past that NTRO would protect the Critical ICT Infrastructures of India. A Tri Service Cyber Command for Armed Forces of India is also in pipeline.

Some policy decisions in the field of cyber security have already been taken by Congress Government. These include constitution of NCCC and NCIPC, formulation of a National Cyber Security Policy of India 2013 (NCSP 2013) and National Infrastructure Protection Plan in Thermal Power Sector of India, etc. The BJP Government is not doing anything new but making the efforts to implement exiting projects of Congress Government.

Of course, BJP Government can formulate and implement a working Cyber Attacks Crisis Management Plan of India, Cyber Warfare Policy of India (PDF), etc. Internet is full of unprotected and unsafe devices, SCADA Systems and computers and India has her own share of such unprotected devices. Cross border cyber crimes are also difficult to trace and resolve. The proposed NCCC and NCIPC would come handy in many cyber situations and we welcome the move and efforts of Shri. Ravi Shankar Prasad, Minister of Telecommunications and Information Technology in this regard.

Global Crackdown On Malware Blackshades Results In 90 Arrests Globally

Global Crackdown On Malware Blackshades Results In 90 Arrests GloballyHuman beings are the weakest link in cyber security chain and this was once again proved during the latest crackdown upon crackers and cyber criminals using the malware Blackshades. There were 700,000 estimated victims, whose computers have been hijacked by criminals using the Blackshades software. The crackdown was organised by law enforcement agencies of 19 countries around the world. This has also resulted in the arrest of 90 accused for allegedly using the malware. Among those arrested, in Moldova, was a Swedish hacker who was a co-creator of Blackshades.

Blackshades is another remote administration tool (RAT) that can compromise victim’s security and covertly activate his/her webcam. The modus operendi of infecting a victim’s computer is use of age old social engineering tactics using e-mail and other forms of electronic messages. Sending of a malicious link through e-mail and luring the victim to click the same is a common form of cyber attack that is very prevalent these days. Users of Blackshades also utilised this technique besides physically installing the malware wherever possible. The malware was used to commit various cyber crimes ranging from extortion to bank fraud.

Last week, watching it all play out were about two dozen FBI cyber crime investigators holed up in the New York FBI’s special operations center, high above lower Manhattan.  Rows of computer screens flickered with updates from police in Germany, Denmark, Canada, the Netherlands and elsewhere. Investigators followed along in real time as hundreds of search warrants were executed and suspects were interviewed. The sweep, capping a two-year operation, is one of the largest global cyber crime crackdowns ever. It was coordinated so suspects didn’t have time to destroy evidence.

Malware like Blackshades are successful because many computer users do not update anti-virus software. Many click on links sent in messages on social media sites such as Facebook, or in email, without knowing what they are clicking on. In seconds, malware is downloaded. Often computer users have no idea infection has taken place.

Cyber Security Laws In India Needed

Cyber Security Laws In India NeededThe correlation between a legal framework and cyber security is not difficult to anticipate and conceptualise. Cyber security compliances require adherence to certain well established legal principles. The moment a cyber security breach occurs; many legal issues and compliance requirements are automatically invoked.

For instance, in a typical cyber attack, it becomes imperative to ascertain and find the originator of such attack. The requirements to engage in first instance analysis, e-discovery and cyber forensics also arise due to such cyber attack. The reporting requirement to the compliance and regulatory authorities also arise.

However, none of this applies to Indian companies and individuals that are facing cyber attacks no matter howsoever sophisticated and damaging such cyber attack are. In India companies and individuals are not reporting cyber security breaches and attacks to the government and its agencies. The cyber security trends and developments in India 2013 (PDF) short listed all these shortcomings of Indian cyber security initiatives.

The Indian government has in the past declared that cyber security breach disclosure norms of India would be formulated very soon. However, till now no action has been taken in this regard and companies and individuals are still not reporting cyber security breached to Indian government and its agencies.

For instance, cyber crimes and cyber attacks against banks of India is a very common phenomenon in India. However, banks of India are not only lax while maintaining cyber security but they are also not disclosing such cyber crimes and cyber attacks due to fear of adverse publicity and regulatory penalties. This is creating more problems for the bank customers in general and banking cyber security in India in particular.

The Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act 2000) is the sole cyber law of India. However, it is not capable of forcing the companies and individuals to disclose cyber security breaches and cyber crimes. Nevertheless, the rules under the IT Act, 2000 prescribe cyber law due diligence (PDF), internet intermediary liability, reasonable cyber security practices, etc. they indirectly cover some aspects of cyber security disclosure norms. But they are not sufficient to meet the demands of present times.

Indian Parliament needs to enact a dedicated cyber security law of India that can cater all these regulatory and compliance requirements. Such a law needs to take into consideration techno legal requirements of cyber security. The sooner such a law is enacted the better it would be for the national interest of India as cyber security is an essential and integral part of the national security policy of India.

Cyber Attacks Are Targeting Bitcoin Users And Bitcoin Exchanges

Cyber Attacks Are Targeting Bitcoin Users And Bitcoin ExchangesCyber crimes and cyber attacks have taken a professional shape unlike traditional hobby based exercises. Now we have well organised crime syndicates that try their hands on anything that is lucrative and profit making. The latest to add to this list is the Bitcoins. The Bitcoins users are facing increased cyber attacks around the world and stealing of Bitcoins has become a normal phenomenon these days.

The Bitcoin exchanges around the world are facing numerous challenges. These include challenges from the point of view of laws, technical aspects, cyber security, etc. In India the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issued an advisory cautioning Bitcoin users and Bitcoin exchanges of India of potential legal and security risks.

Cyber criminals have also realised the significance of Bitcoins as a potential virtual currency of the future. They have been using novel methods to steal Bitcoins from innocent users. In the absence of appropriate cyber security awareness and inadequate cyber security safeguards, Bitcoins ate stolen very frequently.

Third party applications are now bundled with illegal Bitcoins miners. .Recently, the E-Sports Entertainment LLC (ESEA) entered into a consent judgment for creating ESEA Botnet and violation of U.S. laws. Cyber criminals have also infected hundreds of thousands of computers with a malware known as “Pony” to steal Bitcoins and other digital currencies.

Thus, cyber security of Bitcoins exchanges and personal computers of Bitcoin users holding their virtual currency is a real challenge. Let us see how this highly volatile virtual currency would survive the sophisticated cyber attacks in the future.

Tri Service Cyber Command For Armed Forces Of India In Pipeline

Tri Service Cyber Command For Armed Forces Of India In PipelineCyber security in India is not upto the mark and as per the expectations. While the cyber attacks are becoming very targeted and highly sophisticated yet India has not made even the most basic efforts to secure its cyberspace. The cyber security trends and developments in India 2013 provided by Perry4Law and Perry4Law’s Techno Legal Base (PTLB) has also outlined many crucial issues (PDF) that are missing from Indian cyber security initiatives.

For instance, India has no cyber warfare policy. A dedicated cyber warfare policy of India (PDF) must be formulated as soon as possible. Similarly, the critical infrastructure protection in India and its problems, challenges and solutions (PDF) are still to be looked into with great priority. It is only now that India has declared that NTRO would protect the Critical ICT Infrastructures of India.

Similarly, a cyber command for Armed Forces of India was in pipeline for long. Now some progress in this regard has taken place. It has been reported that to counter various forms of cyber attacks, India would soon set up a tri-service cyber command. This development was long due but there was little progress in this regard.

The ministry of defence has a draft on the subject ready which the cabinet committee on security, headed by the prime minister, would be taking up for discussion in the days to come. A note for the cabinet committee on security has been prepared for setting up the tri-service cyber command.

Sources said the office of the chairman, chief of staff committee, has written a detailed note to defence minister AK Antony regarding setting up cyber command. Officials, privy to drafting the cabinet note, have explained that the need to have a cyber command has been felt for a long time, as the cyber security infrastructure of India is “weak”.

This is evident from recent incidents of cyber attacks on India. Last year, Chinese hackers broke into sensitive computer systems at the headquarters of the Eastern Naval Command in Visakhapatnam, where the indigenous nuclear submarine Arihant has been undergoing sea trials.

Recently, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) computer systems were breached and sensitive files were leaked. A top defence ministry officer admitted that India has delayed on the cyber security front. “Cyber command would ensure both offensive and defensive cyber security capabilities. Issues like cyber warfare, cyber espionage and cyber terrorism, etc. would be taken care of by a cyber command.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, while addressing the combined commanders conference in November, highlighted the need for developing capacities to counter what he described as “global surveillance operations”.

That NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden had allegedly collected information and intercepted communications in India has lent urgency to setting up a cyber command. As per a recent report, the US is the biggest buyer of malware in the world. Global cyber espionage networks are being actively used to spy on other countries. The command and control servers of malware FinFisher were also found in 36 countries, including India.

US International Strategy For Cyberspace

US International Strategy For CyberspaceCyberspace issues have assumed great importance for countries around the world. This is the reason why issues like Cyber Law and Cyber Security have become an essential part of national as well as international ICT policies and strategies.

Although cyberspace is a boundary less place yet there is no internationally acceptable cyberspace treaty till now. Even the basic International Cyber Law Treaty, which can be uniformly accepted by all countries of the world, is missing. Till now India is not a part of this cyber law treaty.

United States (US) has in the past revealed its international strategy for cyberspace to promote an open and secure information and communications infrastructure. US will work internationally to promote an open, interoperable, secure, and reliable information and communications infrastructure that supports international trade and commerce, strengthens international security, and fosters free expression and innovation, said US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in remarks during the release of strategy at the State Department.

To achieve that goal, we will build and sustain an environment in which norms of responsible behavior guides states actions, sustains partnerships, and support the rule of law in cyberspace, she added.

What they are able to do in cyberspace, whether they can exchange ideas and opinions openly, freely explore the subjects of their choosing, stay safe from cyber criminals, and engage in professional and personal activities online, confident that doing so will remain private and secure, depends a great deal on the policies that we will adopt together, she added.

Of late, Civil Liberties of netizens are openly violated in the name of national security. We have already voiced our concerns in India in this regard. We believe that India must reconcile Civil Liberties and National Security Requirements in the larger interest of Civil Liberty Protection in Cyberspace.

We have also dedicated an initiative titled Human Rights Protection in Cyberspace that has been providing Techno Legal ICT Policies and Strategies for protecting Civil Liberties in Cyberspace.

While US initiative is praiseworthy, it cannot succeed till it collaborates at international level. We may secure some aspects of cyberspace at national level but at international level it is an altogether different issue. But at least a good step has been taken by US and we welcome the same.

Huawei Accused Of Breaching National Security Of India By Hacking Base Station Controller In AP

Huawei Accused Of Breaching National Security Of India By Hacking Base Station Controller In APCyber crimes and cyber attacks have become a common phenomenon in India. However, their intensity and sophistication is increasing day by day. This is evident from the Cyber Law Trends and Developments of India 2013 (PDF), Cyber Security Trends and Developments in India 2013 (PDF) and Cyber Forensics Trends and Developments in India 2013 (PDF) provided by Perry4Law and Perry4Law’s Techno Legal Base (PTLB).

Although National Cyber Security Policy of India 2013 (NCSP 2013) has been declared yet its integration with the National Security Policy of India is still missing. Further, Critical Infrastructure Protection in India needs a special focus. For instance, Huawei and ZTE are already in telecom security tangle and India is considering norms for import and testing of telecom equipments in India. The security agencies of India have even suggested use of indigenously made cyber security softwares.

Now Hindu has reported a serious cyber security attack against Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL)’s network. According to Hindu,  in a major incident of national security breach, India’s top intelligence agencies and Department of Telecom is all set to jointly launch an investigation into the alleged role of Chinese telecom equipment giant Huawei in hacking into BSNL’s network and sabotaging its expansion plans in Rajahmundry in coastal Andhra Pradesh.

Curiously, this is probably the first case where the Centre is also looking at inter-corporate rivalry between two Chinese telecom companies, the other being ZTE, which has bagged BSNL’s network expansion project including the one in Rajahmundry. ZTE is facing its own problems and recently it was accused of assisting conducting of e-surveillance in Iran.

The crucial point here is that if something like this can happen for the simple reason of corporate rivalry what can be done to further the objects cyber terrorism, cyber espionage and cyber warfare.

Following reports of Huawei engineers hacking a ‘base station controller’ (BSC), which controls several ‘base transceiver station’ (BTS) or mobile radio base station in an area, during network upgradation work at Rajahmundry in September/October this year, the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) in the Capital alerted the Department of Telecom, which in turn sought reply from the BSNL. Though the state-run telecom company conceded there has been a breach by Huawei, it failed to give a detailed account of damage done to the national security or the penal action taken against the Chinese firm.

Now, a five-member team comprising senior official from NSCS, Intelligence Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs and BSNL will reach the core of the entire issue. “Several key questions have remained unanswered by the BSNL Andhra Pradesh circle. We will find out entire details about the hacking of BSC like failure of password management, change in database, accessibility of BSC from remote location and authorisation of commands to Huawei personnel. Considering the fact that all this has happened in a coastal city, and that too in a Naxal-affected State, a thorough probe might bring out more facts,” a senior official engaged in the probe told The Hindu.

What is more startling is the fact that the BSNL even failed to report the matter to police or intelligence sleuths in Andhra Pradesh even after finding out the gravity of the situation. It just reported the matter to the Huawei, says an internal communication between the NSCS and the DoT. Initially, the BSNL did not take the matter seriously. It was only after the DoT’s follow ups on the issue, the telecom PSU responded.

In its reply to the DoT, the BSNL said the Andhra Pradesh circle stated that the ‘BSC was relocated at Rajahmundry as a part of phase VII ZTE expansions and 10 numbers of BTS were re-homed on trial basis for confirmation of its satisfactory working before loading actual phase VII sites on it. All the BTS were reverted as soon as the problem (of hacking) was noticed and no live traffic was lost. The BSC was brought down by some (Huawei) company employee due to some inter-corporate rivalry. The problem was resolved when it was brought to the notice of M/s Huawei.”

“A notice was issued to M/s Huawei directing them to investigate the matter. In response to the notice, a national team from M/s Huawei visited Andhra Pradesh circle and assured that such incidents will not reoccur in future and they will take all possible measures to avoid such incident. Such incident has not occurred after the assurance,” the BSNL response to the DoT said.

National Cyber Security Policy Of India 2013 (NCSP 2013)

PRAVEEN-DALAL-MANAGING-PARTNER-OF-PERRY4LAW-CEO-PTLBThe National Cyber Security Policy of India 2013 (NCSP 2013) (PDF) was recently declared by Indian Government. It is a Good Policy on many counts but it also failed to address many crucial aspects as well. For instance, the National Cyber Security Policy of India has failed to protect Privacy Rights in India. Nevertheless, this is a good step in the right direction and it must be updated and improved as the time passes

A sound Cyber Security Policy must be Techno Legal and Holistic in nature. It must be Techno Legal in nature so that it can accommodate both Technological and Legal aspects. It must be Holistic as it should cover as much areas as possible. It must be realistic as well as a single Policy cannot be considered to be Panacea for all Cyber Crimes and Cyber Attacks against India.

Thus, the Indian Cyber Security Policy must be supplemented by other Techno Legal Policies. For instance, the E-Mail Policy of India must supplement the Cyber Security Policy. The Cyber Security Policy must also be supplemented with the Telecom Security Policy of India and National Telecom Policy of India 2012 (NTP 2012). In fact, the National Security Policy of India must have the Cyber Security Policy as an essential component.

This NCSP 2013 intends to protect information and information infrastructure in Cyberspace, build capabilities to prevent and respond to cyber threat, reduce vulnerabilities and minimise damage from cyber incidents through a combination of institutional structures, people, processes, technology and cooperation.

The NCSP 2013 aims at facilitating creation of Secure Computing Environment and enabling adequate trust and confidence in electronic transactions and also guiding stakeholders’ actions for protection of Cyberspace. It outlines a road-map to create a framework for comprehensive, collaborative and collective response to deal with the issue of Cyber Security at all levels within the country. It also recognises the need for objectives and strategies that need to be adopted both at the National level as well as International level.

The NCSP 2013 envisages a vision and mission statement aimed at building a secure and resilience Cyberspace for citizens, businesses and Government. It strives to enable goals aimed at reducing national vulnerability to cyber attacks, preventing cyber attacks and cyber crimes, minimising response and recover time and effective cyber crime investigation and prosecution. It intends to facilitate monitoring key trends at the national level such as trends in cyber security compliance, cyber attacks, cyber crime and cyber infrastructure growth.

The Objectives of the NCSP 2013 include to create a secure cyber ecosystem in the country, generate adequate trust and confidence in IT system and transactions in cyberspace and thereby enhance adoption of IT in all sectors of the economy,  to create an assurance framework for design of security policies and promotion and enabling actions for compliance to global security standards and best practices by way of conformity assessment (Product, process, technology and people), to strengthen the Regulatory Framework for ensuring a Secure Cyberspace Ecosystem, to enhance and create National and Sectoral level 24X7 mechanism for obtaining strategic information regarding threats to ICT infrastructure, creating scenarios for response, resolution and crisis management through effective predictive, preventive, protective response and recovery actions, to improve visibility of integrity of ICT products and services by establishing infrastructure for testing & validation of security of such product, to create workforce for 5,00,000 professionals skilled in next 5 years through capacity building skill development and training, to provide fiscal benefit to businesses for adoption of standard security practices and processes, to enable Protection of information while in process, handling, storage and transit so as to safeguard privacy of citizen’s data and reducing economic losses due to cyber crime or data theft, to enable effective prevention, investigation and prosecution of cyber crime and enhancement of low enforcement capabilities through appropriate Legislative Intervention.

Although the Objectives and Aims of the NCSP 2013 are Laudable yet their “Actual Implementation” is the real problem. India has not been able to achieve these Cyber Security Objectives so far. Since India is a late entrant in the Cyber Security field, it would only be fair to give it some more time to implement these Objectives successfully.