Author Archives: Praveen Dalal

Cyber Forensics Trends And Developments In India 2014-Part 1

Cyber forensics is an upcoming field in India and Indian legal and judicial system has to adapt itself according to the same. Till now cyber forensics is not widely and appropriately used by the law enforcement agencies, lawyers, judges, etc in India. As a result most of the cyber criminals are either not prosecuted at all or they are acquitted in the absence of adequate evidence.

Cyber forensics cannot be used in isolation and allied fields like cyber law, cyber security, e-discovery, digital evidence, cyber crime investigations, etc are also applicable in a majority of cases. Perry4Lawand Perry4Law’s Techno Legal Base (PTLB) have already covered the Cyber Law Trends and Developments of India 2013 (PDF), Cyber Security Trends and Developments in India 2013 (PDF) Cyber Forensics Trends and Developments in India 2013 (PDF).
This is the interim cyber forensics trends of 2014 by Perry4Law and PTLB and we would come up with the complete and annual trend and development analysis subsequently. To start with there is urgent need to ensure cyber forensics skills development of police force, prosecution lawyers and judges in India.  Further, modernisation of police force of India urgently needed.
There have been incidences in India where the law enforcement agencies of India have not conducted proper e-discovery and cyber forensics exercises. This has made their cases weak and the accused may escape the punishment. Some of the present cases where effective cyber forensics could have been used are E-Bay’s cyber breach case, enforcement directorate’s Bitcoins investigation case, Aarushi’s murder case by CBI, IPL match fixing case, Nokia’s software download case, etc. The list is just expanding as cases of improper cyber forensics investigations are in abundance in India.
Clearly the Indian approach towards cyber forensics is not upto the mark and there is an urgent need to change this mentality. The concerned stakeholders must be well versed with techno legal concepts like basics of Internet protocol addresses, IP address spoofing and its defenses, IP address tracking methods and techniques for e-mails, hidden Internet cyber forensics, cloud computing cyber forensics, social media cyber forensics, audio, video and media forensics, etc.
We need to develop cyber forensics investigation solutions in India to encourage digital and scientific evidences in India. The cyber forensics best practices in India are also missing as on date and they must be formulated urgently. The regulations and guidelines for effective investigation of cyber crimes in Indiamust also be drafted as soon as possible. While tracking the IP address in question is the first step in cyber crime investigation yet IP address should not be the sole criteria for arrest and conviction.
We at Perry4Law and PTLB believe that there is an urgent need to formulate an effective techno legal framework that can take care of techno legal issues of contemporary times. Further, colonial and constitutionally unsound laws like telegraphand cyber law must be repealed urgently and dedicated and suitable laws must be enacted for the fields of cyber law, cyber security, cyber forensics, e-discovery, etc. Presently, neither technological not legal issues pertaining to cyber forensics are taken care of by Indian government.

The Central Monitoring System (CMS) Project Of India

April 2013 is the month in which Indian government
wishes to implement the controversial and ambitious central
monitoring system (CMS) project of India. The year 2013 is
also the year where the intelligence
infrastructure of India may also see a boost.

Till now the national
counter terrorism centre (NCTC) of India has failed to
take off the ground. Similarly, the national

Central Monitoring System (CMS) For Telephone Tapping In India

The Central
Monitoring System (CMS) Project of India is a “centralised
mechanism” where telecommunications and Internet communications can
be analysed by the Indian Government and its Agencies.

The CMS project of India is a good and ambitious
project that is required to manage national security and law and
enforcement requirements of the country. However, adequate
“procedural safeguards

The Hacker News: Security In A Serious Way

If you are interested in reading serious cyber
security and related news and views, the Hacker
News is one of the best sources for the same. The security
portal is also providing a magazine on this topic that is also of
good quality.

The Hacker News (THN) is a privately owned Indian
company based out of New Delhi, India and has been providing training
and knowledge-based solutions since

Courts Automation Systems In India, E-Courts And Online Dispute Resolution

Indian courts have been using information and
communication technology (ICT) for effective judicial functioning.
New features like online cause lists, filing of cases on digital
mediums like CDs, providing of judgments online, use of video
conferencing, etc. are already being used by courts of India.

However, automation of courts systems in India is
still far from satisfactory. We are

USPTO Grants Apple Trademarks For Its Retail Outlets Designs And Layout

Apple has been vigorously protecting its brand and
trademark around the world. In one such example, the US Patent and
Trademark Office (USPTO) accepted Apple’s request last week for
trademarks on the minimalist design and layout of its retail outlets.

With a booming e-commerce
in India, Apple must be planning to protect its brand and
trademark in India as well. Apple has already showed its

Renewal Of An Expired Trademark In India And United States

Trademark law of
India is passing through an interesting and developmental phase.
Recently Samsung has raised the issue of international
exhaustion of a trademark under Indian trademark law. Similarly,
trademarks registrations in India have also increased as India is
becoming a favourite destination for commercial activities world

registration in India is regulated by the

Is Online Gambling And Betting Legal In India?

As a leading techno legal ICT law firm of India,
is frequently approached for numerous techno legal issues. One of
them pertains to e-commerce
laws and regulations in India.

Recently many queries have been raised about the
applicable online
gambling laws and regulations in India.  We have also
observed that e-commerce
legal compliances in India are not followed in true letter

E-Commerce Compliances In India

E-commerce is the latest entrepreneur bandwagon in
India. Thousands of e-commerce portals have emerged during the year
2012. However, in the zest of earning profit, legal and compliance
requirements pertaining to e-commerce have been totally ignored by
almost all the e-commerce portals.

The most vulnerable categories that have opened
their online shops pertain to online
pharmacies, online

Online Gambling Laws And Regulations In India

Online gambling in India has aroused great interest
among many e-commerce entrepreneurs of India. This is because online
gambling is a very remunerative and profit oriented business.
However, online gambling is also a complicated business filed as many
laws and technical issues have to be resolved at the same time.

We have a central law on gambling called the Public
Gambling Act of 1867.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Legal Issues India

Optical character recognition (OCR) is one of the
most important stages of e-discovery
or cyber
forensics process. OCR is the process where images of
handwritten, typewritten or printed text are converted into
machine-encoded text using the mechanical or electronic conversion.

The main purpose of OCR is to digitise printed texts
so that they can be electronically searched, stored more

Paper Evidence Scanning And E-Discovery Legal Issues In India

India is in the
process of providing of electronic
delivery of services to Indian citizens. Further, there is also a
shift in electronic financial transactions in India whether it
pertains to Internet
banking or mobile
banking. Additional challenges would also arise due to this
digital revolution in India.

services in India have become essential due to growing

Cyber Security Initiatives In India By PTLB

In this annual
report 2012 we are summarising the techno legal initiatives and
projects that have been freshly undertaken and continued by us. These
include awareness projects, research and development projects,
trainings and education projects and initiatives, skills development
initiatives and projects, etc.

Let us start with some background information before
we go into the details

Pharmaceuticals Trials, Experiments And Online Sales Must Be Regulated In India

Recently, the
Court of India asked the Indian government to monitor and regulate
all clinical trials of experimental drugs in India.  The
Apex Court was anguished over the manner in which clinical trials of
experimental drugs in India are handled by Indian government and its

In particular, the Apex Court was angry with the
Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (

HSI Seeks Public’s Help Identifying ‘Jane Doe’ Producer Of Child Pornography

U.S. Immigration
and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations
(HSI) urgently needs the public’s help to identify a suspected child
pornography producer. The agency is seeking the arrest of an
unidentified woman for producing child pornography and the rescue of
a 4 to 5-year-old victim of sexual exploitation.

The “Jane Doe” criminal complaint and
arrest warrant signed

Legal Issues Of Internet Banking In India

Internet banking is a popular and convenient method
of doing online banking transactions. We have no dedicated Internet
banking laws in India but the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
has issued some guidelines in this regard. However, Internet
banking guidelines in India by RBI are not sufficient to
make the banks follow robust and required cyber security procedures.

This means that Internet

Internet Banking Frauds In India

crimes in India are on rise thanks to the growing use of
information technology. With limited numbers of cyber
law firms in India, these cyber crimes are not reported
properly. Even the cyber
security of India is still catching up with the present

security of banks in India is also not upto the mark. The
banking cyber security in India is also missing. The

Cyber Forensics Services In India

Cyber Forensics in India is still maturing. Further, Cyber Security in India is also at the infancy stage. Perry4Lawand Perry4Law’s Techno Legal Base (PTLB) have been providing Techno Legal Cyber Forensics Services in India and abroad for long. The Cyber Forensics Services of Perry4Law and PTLB cater both Technical and Legal Aspects of Cyber Forensics.
Perry4Law is also managing a Unique and Exclusive Techno-Legal Cyber Forensics Research And Development Centre Of India (CFRDCI). It is supported by PTLB, Perry4Law Techno Legal ICT Training Centre (PTLITC) and other Techno-Legal Initiatives of Perry4Law. The aim of CFRDCI is to Strengthen Cyber Forensics in India in general and Cyber Forensics Capabilities of India in particular.
To strengthen the Cyber Forensics Initiatives of Perry4Law and PTLB, we have been managing the Exclusive Techno Legal Cyber Security Research And Development Centre Of India (CSRDCI), National Cyber Security Database of India (NCSDI), Cyber Crimes Investigation Centre of India (CCICI), Centre Of Excellence On Cyber Security In India and many more Techno Legal Initiatives.
Some of the Techno Legal Services that we provide include Cyber Law, Cyber Security and Cyber Forensics “Cross Examinations”, “Expert Testimonies”, “Techno-Legal Consultations”, “Legal Consultancy”, Cyber Forensics Investigation Solutions, Hidden Internet Forensics, IP Address Spoofing Defenses, and other similar Services and Litigation Support for these areas.
We also provide “Techno-Legal” help for Cyber Forensics Issues, Digital Evidence Recovery, E-Discovery, E-Mail IP Tracking, IP Tracking, Data Recovery, Malware Investigation, Hacking Investigation, Cyber Security, Forensically Sound Data Collection, etc.
If you need our Professional Services, you may Contact Us along with payment of our Professional Fees and Charges. See the Binding Legal Agreement before Contacting Us.

The Proposed IT Act 2000 Amendments: Boon Or Bane

The aim of this article, written
in 2006, is to consider the far reaching consequences of the
proposed IT Act, 2000 amendments as suggested by the Expert Committee
appointed by the Government in this regard. These amendments were
severely criticised in India because of their inherent weaknesses and
retrograde approach. If these proposed amendments have been approved
by the cabinet without

Indian Critical Infrastructure And Cyber Security Challenges And Issues

The reliance of consumers and businesses on the
cyberspace and interconnected networks would continue to increase.
Critical industries like electric, water, oil and natural gas,
transportation, automotive, and aerospace are increasingly dependent
upon industrial control systems like supervisory control and data
acquisition (SCADA).

In fact, SCADA has become the new
cyber attacks

The Glaring Cyber Security Challenges And Indian Response

It is very difficult to predict the future cyber
security issues in India or in other nations. Even it is
very difficult to analyse all the cyber
security issues, challenges and problems of India and
other jurisdictions.

However, one thing is for sure. Cyber
security challenges in India are going to increase with
the advent of sophisticated malware like Stuxnet,
Flame, Shamoon, etc.

Cyber Law Firms In New Delhi India

Cyber law is a complicated subject that requires
tremendous expertise to manage. There are very few cyber
law firms in New Delhi India and Perry4Law
is proud to be one of them. Further, Perry4Law is the exclusive
techno legal ICT law firm of India and is the exclusive techno legal
cyber law firm of India.

The cyber law expertise of Perry4Law is supported by
Techno Legal Base (

India’s Glaring Cyber Security Challenges

cyber security problems, issues and challenges management
is a major cause of concern these days. India, like all other
countries, is facing shortage of skilled cyber security
professionals. Even there are very few cyber
law firms in India who can manage legal issues of
information technology abuse and cyber crimes.

Cyber security problems and challenges in India are

Techno Legal Initiatives Of Perry4Law And PTLB

legal issues pose special challenges before all nations. This is so
because these issues are complex combination of both technical and
legal issues. At Perry4Law
and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB)
we have been spearheading many world renowned techno legal

For instance, Perry4Law and PTLB are managing the
exclusive techno
legal centre of excellence for cyber forensics

Data Protection Laws And Regulations In India

this work Perry4Law
and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB)
are sharing the most effective and useful articles pertaining to data
protection laws and regulations in India. We hope this collection of
articles would prove to be useful to all concerned.

(1) Data
Protection Laws In India And Privacy Rights In India

Privacy Rights, Privacy Laws and Data Protection Laws In India


Privacy, Data Protection, E-Surveillance And Phone Tapping In India

this works Perry4Law
and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB)
have compiled a list of articles that truly reflect upon the techno
legal position regarding privacy, data protection, e-surveillance,
phone tapping, and other such issues in India. We hope readers would
find this compilation useful.

The list is as follows:

(1) Privacy
Rights In India

(2) Privacy
Laws In India And

Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) In India

dispute resolution (ODR) in India is one area that requires policy
level attention. ODR can help in reducing litigation time span and
costs. Further, ODR can also help in reducing burden from traditional

and Perry4Law
Techno Legal Base (PTLB) have been working in the
direction of legal enablement of ICT systems in India and world wide
and legal enablement of

Technical And Technological Skills Development In India

and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB)
have been receiving lots of queries from various professionals,
companies, individuals, students, etc for availing their techno legal
trainings. Perry4Law and PTLB are providing exclusive techno
legal skills development in India and world wide.

In order to explain the scope and ambit of techno
legal trainings of Perry4Law and PTLB, we are

Privacy Rights In India

of privacy
right in the ICT era is an important part of protection of
rights in cyberspace. Privacy rights must be analysed
along with some allied rights like data
protection rights, data security rights, right to
information, etc.

As far as India is concerned, we have no dedicated
laws in India and privacy rights in India, data
protection laws in India, data

Electronic Delivery Of Services In India

Delivery of Services in India has been in news for years
but its actual implementation is still to happen. Despite many rounds
of legislative drafting and governmental discussions, the Indian
electronic delivery of services bill 2011 could not see
the light of the day. The natural result is that e-delivery
of services in India is missing.

While rejecting the latest draft of

E-Delivery Of Services In India Missing

delivery of services in India (e-delivery of services in
India) is in really bad shape thanks to the myopic attitude of our
Indian government and its committees. As on date we have no mandatory
framework for e-governance services in India.

This is a clear case of denial of digital
empowerment of Indian citizens by the Indian government. The
information technology act 2000 (IT

Skills Development In India And The Vocational Education And Training System Of India

We are facing a very serious situation in the fields
of employment and education in India. A vast majority of our educated
youths are still unemployed. The primary reason for this is the
defective education system of India that is primarily academic in

We do not pay much attention to professional,
vocational and training based education in India. All we do is
teaching of age old

BackTrack 5 R3 Released For Download

is one of the highest rated and acclaimed Linux security distribution
of the world. It is used by numerous security professionals and
companies to perform various security and penetration testing related

The best part about Backtrack is that you can
install it on a DVD, USB
drive or any other media of your choice that supports
Backtrack installation. Once installed,

Establishment Of E-Courts In India And Their Implementation

Indian judicial and legal systems are very slow to
adopt information and communication technology (ICT). Although some
steps have been taken to computerise the Indian courts yet by and
large they are insufficient and not relevant.

delivery of justice in India is urgently needed.
and ODR in India are essential part of electronic delivery
of justice in India. Despite the

Cyber Security Challenges For The Smart Grids In India

These days most of the public utilities are managed
and coordinated by information and communication technology (ICT). In
many cases, these utilities are managed through remote administration
as well. This is also the stage and process that makes these
utilities vulnerable to cyber attacks.

Keeping this fact in mind, critical
infrastructure protection in India in general and cyber

Mobile Banking Cyber Security In India

security in India is facing many challenges
and problems. One of the major problems of cyber security
in India is that various stakeholders are not at all interested in
ensuring cyber security for their respective organisations. However,
the worst part of Indian cyber security initiatives is that Indian
government is pushing hard initiatives like mobile banking, mobile
commerce, etc

Privacy Laws In India And Privacy Rights In India

have no dedicated statutory or constitutional privacy
laws In India. However, the Supreme Court of India has
interpreted Article 21 of Indian Constitution as the source of
constitutional right to privacy in India. For some strange reasons,
rights and laws in India have always been ignored by
Indian government. Even the proposed
draft right to privacy bill 2011 of India remained

Critical Infrastructure Protection In India

Critical infrastructures like power utilities,
transportation, banking systems, stock markets, medical institutions,
etc are essential part of our day to day lives. There disruption for
even few hours can cause great loss and discomfort. At times this may
also result in casualties of human lives.

In these circumstances, critical
infrastructure protection in India is needed. To achieve

Importance Of Cyber Forensics For India

forensics in India is one of the most important fields for
effective legal and judicial system of India. Indian
Approach towards cyber forensics has been lukewarm so far.
It is only now that India has started paying attention to cyber

There are very few cyber forensics firms and
companies operating in India. Cyber forensics is a dynamic field that
requires continuous

Cyber Crimes Trends In India 2012

and Perry4Law
Techno Legal Base (PTLB) have been providing ICT
trends in India since 2005-06. The ICT
trends in India 2009 and subsequent trends have discussed
both the positive and negative aspects of Indian ICT policies and

We have also been providing cyber law trends in
India and cyber security trends in India for long. The cyber
law trends of India 2012 and cyber

Use Of Technology To Fight Cross Border, Transnational And White Collor Crimes

Technology has increasingly being used to commit
cross border, transnational and white collor crimes. As law
enforcement technologies evolved even cyber criminals
devised novel and undetectable methods to indulge in their nefarious

Use of Hidden
Internet for committing cross border, transnational and
white collor crimes has increased a lot. Since the activities are not

Natgrid Project Of India: The Do Or Die Stage

The National
Intelligence Grid (Natgrid) Project of India is one of the
most ambitious Projects of India. It has been passing through rough
weathers in the past. The good news is that the Cabinet Committee on
Security (CCS) has approved an Rs 1,100-crore allocation for the
NATGRID and has also granted an extension to it. The CCS has also
allowed NATGRID to acquire certain technological items

Law Enforcement Technologies In India

Law enforcement plays a crucial role in maintaining
law and order situation in a region. In India, the law enforcement
responsibility is managed by numerous law enforcement agencies.
Indian Constitution has demarcated law enforcement subject as a
matter of State List. This means that a majority of law enforcement
functions in various States are performed by respective State.

There are

Lawful Interception In India Missing

Lawful interception of Internet, mobile and other
technology related communications is a big challenge for Indian
government. Indian government is trying to do the same that can best
serve its interests. However, in its zest to ensure technology
communication interceptions in India, Indian government is landing up
in doing “unlawful interceptions”.

The lawful
interception law is needed in

US India Cyber Security Relationship Needs Rejuvenation

International community is taking cyber
very seriously. Even NATO
had requested cyber security cooperation from India.
cyber security and international cooperation
must be
rejuvenated in the context of contemporary developments. Keeping this
is mind, the Indo
US cyber security relationship needs improvements.

United States is presently engaged in
serious cyber

Consolidated FDI Policy Of India 2012 By DIPP

It is very cumbersome and inconvenient
to report all
links to our previous posts on the topic consolidated FDI policy of
India 2012 in every subsequent post. Therefore, Perry4Law
and Perry4Law
Techno Legal Base (PTLB) have decided to report
previous posts in this regard at this post.

This post would act as the base for all
posts on this topic and we would keep on updating this

Latest Techno Legal Initiatives Of Perry4Law Organisation And PTLB

Perry4Law has launched certain techno legal initiatives that are of public importance. These initiatives basically cover areas like trainings and education, online disputes resolution, e-courts,Perry4Law is the legal segment of Perry4Law’s Organisation and Perry4Law is taking care of the technology laws and ICT related legal issues. Perry4Law Organisation is the umbrella body that governs the

Virtualisation, Cloud Solutions And Encryption Usage In India

Virtualisation, cloud solutions and encryption are three issues that are interrelated. These aspects are interrelated through various applicable laws in India that all virtualisation and cloud computing companies must follow to avoid legal liabilities.The present trend in India in this regard is not very encouraging. Virtualisation and cloud computing service providers are either not aware of

Legal Immunity From Criminal Prosecutions To Armed Forces At Foreign Jurisdictions

Legal immunity from criminal prosecutions of armed forces personnel of one nation present in another nation is a complicated aspect. It requires analysis of public international law, international treaties and convention, multilateral agreement, bilateral agreements between two countries and so on.For instance, if a member of United States armed forces commits felony, sedition, murder or any

Google Staff Got Confused While Dealing With DMCA Notice

The confusion regarding the recent suspension of some of our posts has resolved now. Simultaneously when we were sending the legal response to such suspension, we received an e-mail from the Blogger team. It intimated us that they have complied with our request to remove contents from the offending platforms.We were surprised as we did not send any such request. All we requested was removal of “

Online Sale And Purchase Of Prescribed Drugs and Medicines In India

Online sales and purchase are governed by electronic commerce transactions. We have no dedicated e-commerce laws and regulations in India. However, a basic level legal e-commerce framework has been provided by the Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act 2000) that is the cyber law of India.While we have basic level e-commerce legal framework in India yet e-health related legal framework is

National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) Of India

India has too many agencies and authorities and they are scattered all over India. For practical reasons, there are no centralised agency that can manage law and order and cyberspace related issues. This is resulting in increased cyber attacks and cyber crimes committed against India and Indian citizens.Cyber law issues, cyber security and national security are on agenda of Indian government

Cell Phone Laws In India

Legal enablement of ICT systems in India is posing big challenge before India. Cell phone laws in India are just one of the examples of such legal enablement. Although we have a cyber law for India yet we have no dedicated mobile phone law and mobile phone laws in India are needed. Similarly, efforts must also be made to strengthen the mobile cyber security in India.With the launch of projects

Mobile Phone Laws In India Needed

In this column, Mr. B.S.Dalal, Partner of India’s exclusive techno legal ICT law firm Perry4Law, has shared his views about the requirements of enacting mobile phone laws in India.We have no dedicated cell phone laws in India. Further, we do not have a robust mobile cyber security in India. In this background, absence of a dedicated mobile phone law in India is not a good sign.Mobile phones are

RBI Warned Indian Banks For Inadequate Cyber Security

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has been issuing various directions and recommendations from time to time to strengthen cyber security of banks operating in India. Further, RBI has also prescribed a cyber due diligence for Indian banks. However, Indian banks are not following the directions of RBI in this regard and a majority of banks in India still do not have a well defined cyber security

E-Courts And ODR In India

Electronic courts (e-courts) and online dispute resolution (ODR) are two most important uses of technology for dispute resolution and adjudicating of cases. However, India has been slow on both these fronts. For instance, till the end of February 2012, we are still waiting for the establishment of first e-court in India. This is so because India lacks techno legal expertise for establishment of

Phone Tapping Law In India

Phone tapping laws in India is in real bad shape. Rather, it cannot be properly termed as a valid and constitutional phone tapping law. The Indian telegraph act 1885 carries few provisions under which the Indian government and its agencies can tap phones in India.However, these provisions and outdated law are clearly in violation of constitutional provisions and constitutional safeguards. As on

Constitutionality Of NCTC Challenged Before Madras High Court

The constitutional validity of National Counter Terrorism Centre (Organisation, Functions, Powers and Duties) Order 2012 has been challenged before the Madras High Court. A public interest litigation petition (PIL) has been filed in the Madras High Court challenging the constitutional validity of the NCTC Order 2012.This action is not only natural but was also very obvious. The constitutionality

Parliamentary Oversight Of Intelligence Agencies Of India Is Missing

This is an opinion piece that first appeared in Google news but was censored by Google within an hour of its publication. This act of Google is a gross violation of civil liberties in general and right to speech and expression in particular. We are not even sure whether Google would keep this article in search engine results pages (SERPs) and blog search.In order to make available this article to

Google Is Censoring NCTC And Intelligence Agencies Related Results In India

Censoring and filtering of search engine results pages (SERPs) by Google in India is neither new nor uncommon. Even blogs have been demoted and censored by Google. Posts offending Indian government sentiments and ideology are frequently censored by Google. Whether it is search results of Aadhar project, video conferencing, World Bank related issues, etc all of them have been censored by Google

National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) of India

National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) of India is presently facing stiff oppositions. A majority of them are self created problems but some of them are also arising due to practical difficulties and internal turf war. The net result is that the obvious but unsolvable terrorism dilemma in India still continues.NCTC, like other governmental projects, is not supported by any legal framework. This

New GTLDs Applicants Must Ensure Due Diligence Before Applying

As the readers of the blog are aware Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) has already laid down stringent conditions for the acceptance of an application for registration of new GTLDs. The application amount for normal applicants has been quantified at US $ 1, 85,000. This would keep the non serious applicants out of the race to get a new GTLD.However, merely giving this

Cyber Security Laws In India

With the growing incidences of cyber attacks against India, cyber security in India has got the attention of Indian government. Cyber security in India is not satisfactory. Whether it is legal framework or practical implementation, cyber security of India is still lagging far behind that other nations.We have no dedicated cyber security laws in India and we urgently need a dedicated cyber

Internet Intermediary Liability In India

Information Technology Act 2000 (IT Act 2000) is the sole cyber law of India. IT Act 2000 is also regulating the functioning of Internet intermediaries in India. Internet intermediaries’ law and liability in India has become very stringent after the passing of the Information Technology (Intermediaries Guidelines) Rules, 2011 of India.These Internet intermediaries liability Rules of India

Privacy Rights, Privacy Laws and Data Protection Laws In India

Privacy rights and data protection rights are essential part of civil liberties protection in cyberspace. With the growing use of information and communication technology (ICT), privacy rights have acquired a very different meaning. It would not be wrong to assume privacy and data protection rights as integral part of human rights protection in cyberspace.We have no dedicated privacy laws in

Modernisation of Postal Department Of India In Pipeline

The postal department of India is performing many crucial functions. With the passage of time, the postal department of India also needs technological upgradation and modernisation initiatives. This is not a difficult task to achieve as the department of post is attached with the union ministry of communication and information technology (MCIT).Realising the potential of a modern postal

Are Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Heading For A Trouble?

Companies like Google, Facebook, Yahoo, Microsoft, etc facing a cyber battle in New Delhi, India. A criminal complaint against these companies is pending before a Trial Court of New Delhi. Obviously, these companies did what was best in their interest. They petitioned the Delhi High Court for quashing of criminal complaint against them.Before the Delhi High Court, the respondent has placed it

New National Telecom Network Security Policy Of India

Recently a body named National Telecom Network Security Coordination Board (NTNSCB) of India has been proposed to be constituted by Indian government. The aim of establishment of NTNSCB is to ensure cyber security and telecom network security in India in a centralised manner.The establishment of proposed NTNSCB would require formulation of telecom security policy in India and telecom equipments

Google And Facebook Must Comply With Indian Laws

Companies like Google, Facebook, etc are facing criminal trial in India. With the passage of time, more and more legal arsenal is now becoming available for Indian courts to hold these companies liable for violation of Indian laws. In fact, hints are now given that these companies are deliberately ignoring and violating Indian laws like copyright law, trademarks law and cyber law of India of

India Must Invent Alternatives Of DMCA Complaint To Google And Others

Of late foreign companies and websites like Google, Facebook, etc are increasingly finding themselves in the legal net of India. In fact, a criminal case is already pending against Google, Facebook, etc for failure to exercise cyber law due diligence.If websites like Google, Facebook, etc fail to exercise cyber law due diligence as per the requirements of Indian information technology act, 2000 (

Google’s New Privacy Policy And Terms Of Service As On March 2012

Google is presently managing 60 different privacy policies across multiple products and services of Google and is in the process of replacing them with a single privacy policy that’s a lot shorter and easier to read. The updated Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service are available online to read and analyse. These changes will take effect on March 1, 2012.Google new privacy policy would allow

Video Conferencing Laws In India

Video conferencing is increasingly being used for the purposes of digital evidencing in India. Video conferencing would also be an important part of e-courts of India once they would be established. Presently, video conferencing is used for many computerised courts in India.The information technology act 2000 (IT Act 2000) is the cyber law of India that has provided a legal framework for

Foreign Exchange (Compounding Proceedings) Rules, 2000 Of India

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has been appointed as one of the Compounding Authority under the Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999 (FEMA 1999) that can compound certain contravention under the FEMA 1999. The regional offices of RBI have been given compounding powers under the FEMA Act 1999.Further, the RBI master circular on compounding of contraventions under Indian FEMA 1999 has been recently

Post Compounding Procedure Of Compounding Authority Under Indian FEMA Act 1999

In this special column, Mr. B.S.Dalal, Senior Partner at Perry4Law and a Techno Legal Banking and Financial Expert, is discussing the post compounding procedure for Compounding Of Contraventions Under Indian FEMA, 1999, as followed by the Compounding Authority.Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is one of the Compounding Authority under the Indian Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 1999 that

RBI Master Circular On Compounding Of Contraventions Under Indian FEMA, 1999

In this special column, Mr. B.S.Dalal, Senior Partner at Perry4Law and a Techno Legal Banking and Financial Expert, is discussing the current position of Compounding Of Contraventions Under Indian FEMA, 1999.In the past, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has liberalised and decentralized many crucial issues of Indian Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 1999. This includes the procedure for

Video Conferencing Blocking Laws In India

Video conferencing has revolutionized the way our say to day affairs are managed. Video conferencing facilitates many important commercial and personal communications in a cost effective and efficient manner.Obviously, video conferencing is regulated by laws of various nations. However, we have no dedicated video conferencing law in India. Of course, some shades of video conferencing regulations

Video Conferencing Laws And Regulations In India

Use of vide conferencing in business community of India is not new and it is in use for long. Even use of vide conferencing for legal and judicial purposes is not new in India. Courts in India have been using video conferencing for litigation purposes especially for receiving evidence from witness.Even Indian laws like Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act 2000), Code of Criminal Procedure,

Legal Issues Of Cloud Computing In India

Cloud computing is a process in which essential hardware and software based services are provided by a third party with no requirement to install such hardware and software by the service seeker. In other words, computational powers, hardware upgrades and latest software are provided on rent in an online environment where individuals and organisations can use the same.Cloud computing is basically

Huawei And ZTE In Telecom Security Tangle Of India

With the proposal to establish National Telecom Network Security Coordination Board (NTNSCB) of India, the issues of cyber security and telecom security in India have arisen once again. Even the national telecom policy of India 2011 reflects these concerns.The issues pertaining to telecom security policy in India and telecom equipments security framework in India are not new. The home ministry of

National Telecom Network Security Coordination Board (NTNSCB) Of India

Announcement pertaining to telecom security and cyber security in India have been made from time to time. Even a new national telecom policy of India 2011/2012 has also been suggested by Department of Telecommunication (DoT), India.DoT has also suggested the creation of the Telecoms Security Council of India (TSCI) that would look into security related aspects of hardware and network equipments.

Legal Actions Against Offending Foreign Websites In India

Websites based in foreign jurisdictions are engaging in various forms of illegal activities that are offences under Indian laws. For instance, they are openly violating intellectual property rights (IPRs) like copyright of Indian nationals. When these foreign websites are contacted to remove the offending contents, they simply ask you to follow foreign law procedures that are neither practical

Cyber Law Trends Of India 2012

The cyber law trends of India 2011 were provided by Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB). This trend covered many techno legal issues that are of tremendous importance to various stakeholders. However, it seems various stakeholders have still not taken issues like cyber law, cyber security, cyber due diligence, e-discovery, social media due diligence, etc seriously.The year 2012 would

US Companies, India, Conflict Of Laws And Criminal Liabilities

Companies like Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, etc and social media websites like Facebook, etc are currently facing criminal trail in India for not removing objectionable contents from their respective websites.According to cyber law of India and laws of other jurisdiction, the safe harbour protection of Internet intermediaries is lost the moment they are notified of the offending act or omission.

Why Vinay Rai Did Not Contact The Concerned Websites?

Vinay Rai, the person behind criminal complaint against social media websites and companies like Facebook and Google, has become instrumental in testing the internet intermediary law of India. Presently, Google and Facebook are gripped in the Indian cyber law tangle.To make the matter worst, not only the executives of parent companies have been personally summoned by the trial court but it has

Corruption And Technology Related Due Diligences In India

The recent spate of corruption related disclosures in India has sent a strong message to Indian and foreign companies to ensure that their business are strictly in compliance with Indian and foreign laws. Naturally, companies that have entered into merger and acquisitions (M&A) in the past are now looking forward to ensure that nothing fishy happened during such M & A transactions.These Indian

India Must Stress Upon International Cyber Law Treaty

United States (US) has been working in the direction of making laws that are primarily targeted towards foreign websites. This means that foreign websites that are indulging in unethical behaviours like cyber crimes, intellectual property rights (IPRs) violations, etc can be forced to be taken down or blocked in US by US government.While this is a policy decision of US that has been widely

Electronic Authentication Policy Of India

Electronic authentication (e-authentication) is a very useful service provided it is safe, secure and reliable. Similarly, e-authentication must also be supported by a sound legal framework that governs its uses and abuses.We have no e-authentication policy in India. Even we have no legal framework for e-authentication in India. Although some efforts in this regard were made through the Aadhar

Mobile Banking Cyber Security In India

Mobile Banking is the buzz word these days. While the idea of mobile banking is promising yet it requires certain prerequisites to be successful in India. The chief among these requirements is the requirement to have a robust cyber security for mobile banking in India.Cyber security in India in general and cyber security for online banking transactions in particular is not in good shape. The

Electronic Filing Of Consumer Complaints In India

The use of information and communication technology (ICT) for justice delivery system is well known. Even use of ICT for judicial and legal reforms in India is well understood. The role of ICT for effective judicial system in India is though well known yet very few efforts in this regard have been undertaken in India.One can understand this position from the fact that till now we are still

Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) And Homeland Security (HS) In India

World over critical infrastructure protection (CIP) and homeland security (HS) are considered as top priority areas. This is logical as well since both CIP and HS are important parts of national security of any nation.With the growing use and dependence upon information and communication technology (ICT), nations are focusing upon ensuring robust cyber security. The international cyber security

Social Media Websites Investigation In India

Social media websites have become ubiquitous these days. Ask any Internet using person or organisations and he/it would tell you about usage of some form of social media websites. Social media is not only helpful in projecting own policies, thoughts and ideas but is also helpful in exploring new ventures and partnerships.However, abuses of social media are also rampant. Social media is

Internet Access Is A Human Right But Is It Useful?

Civil liberties are essential for the sustainable growth of human beings. A country that does not respect civil liberties cannot be a democratic and civilised nation. This is the reason why we have human rights that are protected by United Nations and respective country.However, civil liberties protections in cyberspace are still ignored for unknown reasons. It may be due to lack of knowledge and

Civil Liberties Protection In Cyberspace

Protection of civil liberties in cyberspace is an area that has been ignored for long. Even international organisations like United Nations have not taken many steps in this crucial direction. This has also resulted in a limited growth of human rights protection in cyberspace in both public international law as well as private international law.When totalitarian and orwellian states started

Electronic Legal Due Diligence In India

Legal due diligence in India is not a new concept. Legal due diligence involves assessing the suitability, efficiency and viability of a company or organisation. Legal due diligence may be required to meet statutory and regulatory requirements or it may be necessary when a company wishes to invest in another company.A contemporary form of legal due diligence, especially for companies and

Internet Access Is A Fundamental Human Right In Cyberspace

Civil liberties protection in cyberspace has taken a centre stage these days. International community is getting serious in protecting valuable civil liberties that are openly violated by various nations. For instance, the Council of Europe issues a resolution that prohibits abuse of state secrecy and national security for violating civil liberties. Similarly, United Nations has also declared

Abuse Of State Secrecy And National Security: Obstacles To Parliamentary And Judicial Scrutiny Of Human Rights Violations

The Council of Europe has issued many important and far reaching resolutions and notifications in the year 2011. One such important resolution is titled as abuse of state secrecy and national security: obstacles to parliamentary and judicial scrutiny of human rights violations. This is in addition to the concerns shown by the European Council regarding cyber attacks and political pressures upon

Council of Europe’s Draft Resolution On Abuse Of State Secrecy And National Security

In this “Guest Column”, Praveen Dalal, Managing Partner of Perry4Law has examined one of the most important resolutions of Council of Europe. It is titled abuse of state secrecy and national security: obstacles to parliamentary and judicial scrutiny of human rights violations.Recently European Council had also shown its concern regarding cyber attacks and political pressures upon cyber dissidents

Cyber Law Of India Should Be Reformed

Technological issues when collaborated with legal framework bring complex situations. It is very difficult to provide a legal framework for technological issues. India is also trying to grapple with this problem. Although cyber law in India has been enacted in the form of information technology act 2000 (IT Act 2000) yet it has remained archaic and non performer. The cyber law trends in India

Cyber Laws In India

Cyber laws in India are very much required especially to manage the culpable dealings of big corporate houses. IT frauds and cyber crimes in Indian companies are increasing at a great speed. Currently there is no cyber due diligence for Indian companies that has been mandatorily provided by the Indian Companies Act, 1956.The Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act 2000) is the sole cyber law of

Digital Preservation In India Needed

Digital preservation is an issue that has not received much attention in India. Digital preservation is a process in which materials are converted into electronic form for future uses. Digital preservation also ensures that the material has a longer life shelf than the original form.Digital preservation in India is still in infancy stage. Although we have a Public Records Act 1993 that mandates a

Ethical Hacking Training And Courses In India

The need of ethical hackers in India has emerged out of the necessity to tackle growing cases of cyber crimes and cyber attacks. For too long strategic systems and computers located at Indian government departments and sensitive faculties have been targeted by cyber criminals and enemy states. Incidences of cyber espionage against India have increased a lot.Naturally, India needs a skilled

Financial Frauds And IT Crimes In Indian Companies Is Increasing

Financial frauds and cyber crimes have plagued Indian corporate sector. IT and cyber frauds in Indian companies has increased a lot. Corporate IT frauds and cyber crime investigations in India have also increased. This has also necessitated cyber due diligence for Indian companies.White collar crimes and financial frauds are increasing in India. By its very nature these high profile crimes affect

Corporate IT Frauds And Cyber Crimes Investigation In India

Corporate frauds and crimes have taken a new shape in the present information technology age. Data theft, privacy violations, intellectual property rights (IPRs) violation, trade secrets theft, financial frauds, etc have also increased in the corporate sector of India. Even white collar crimes and organised crimes have increased a lot.Clearly, IT and cyber frauds in Indian companies have

Cyber Due Diligence For Indian Companies

Cyber due diligence in India has finally arrived in India. The information technology act, 2000 (IT Act 2000) is the sole cyber law of India. IT Act 2000 prescribes cyber due diligence requirements on the part of various stakeholders like banks, companies, individuals, Internet intermediaries, e-commerce sites, etc.However, till now cyber due diligence in India has not been taken seriously. This

IT And Cyber Frauds In Indian Companies Is Increasing

White collar crimes and financial frauds are increasing in India. By its very nature these high profile crimes affect corporate sector. Indian companies are also facing increased corporate frauds, financial frauds, white color crimes and technological frauds.With growing dependence upon information and communication technology (ICT) for various corporate functions, corporate systems and corporate

Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) In India

Information and communication technology (ICT) is considered to be a good option for resolving disputes of modern days. Concepts like online dispute resolution (ODR) and e-courts are proof of the same.Unfortunately, neither online dispute resolution in India nor e-courts in India has been accepted and implemented. In fact, we have a single techno legal e-courts training and consultancy centre of

Terror Funding Template Of National Investigation Agency (NIA) Of India

National investigation agency (NIA) of India is the exclusive central agency that deals with terrorism related cases in India. It has been created under the National Investigation Agency Act, 2008. It intends to strengthen Indian capabilities to fight terrorism in India.Terrorist activities heavily depend upon financial resources. Since legal channels of transfer of money are closely guarded,

Indian Research And Analysis Wing (RAW) Granted E-Surveillance Powers

Indian government is in controversies these days. Controversial functions like e-surveillance in India, websites blocking in India, Internet censorship in India, etc are performed by Indian government and its agencies without any procedural and constitutional safeguards and without any constitutionally sound legal framework supporting these functions.India does not have a constitutionally sound

Intelligence Gathering In India Is Unconstitutional

Intelligence gathering and fighting terrorism are essential national security and sovereign functions. They cannot be equated at par with other governmental functions. That is the reason why every country provides some extra protection and immunity from public scrutiny to such functions.None can doubt that Indian counter terrorism capabilities need rejuvenation. We have an obvious but

E-Delivery Of Public Services Development Policy Loan (DPL) Project Of India

Electronic delivery of services is an effective method to introduce transparency in governmental dealings and to reduce corruption therein. Similarly, e-delivery of services can also bring efficiency that can reduce costs and unnecessary time taking by government departments.For instance, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is planning to use electronic initial public offer (E-IPO) in

The Cable TV Networks (Regulation) Second Amendment Bill 2011 Of India

Entertainment and media industry in India is witnessing an incredible growth rate. Indian government is also streamlining the legal frameworks that would help in the sustainable growth of media and entertainment industry in India.Technological advances and the need to shift from analog spectrum to digital broadcasting by television broadcasters have put digital television (DTV) on a fast track.

Electronic Bail Granting And Communication System In India

Granting of bail in a criminal matter ensures the right to life and liberty of an individual. While granting a bail, it is ensured that the normal life off the grantee is not jeopardised due to the initiation of a criminal proceeding. In many cases, although the bail is granted yet its communication and final execution may take some time. This seems to be an unreasonable exercise and avoidable

E-Commerce Laws In India

Technology has brought many important changes the way we deal in our day to day lives. Whether it is e-governance or e-commerce, individuals and companies are equally benefited due to use of technology.Realising that cyberspace can bring many commercial benefits; both individuals and companies are ensuring that they have strong online presence. More and more brand promotion and protection in

Cyber Law On Social Media And Networking Sites In India

Social media and networking sites have a crucial role to play. Now even governments across the world acknowledge this importance of social media websites. India is one such country that is currently trying to deal with social media sites. However, we have no dedicated social media laws in India. It has even been reported that guidelines for social media contents monitoring in India would be

Social Networking Laws In India

With the fast growing social networking platforms in India it has become essential to enact effective social media laws in India. Presently social networking laws in India are not mature enough to take care of social media in the most appropriate manner. Social media is considered to be an Internet intermediary as per Indian cyber law. The recent controversy of Internet censorship in India has

Social Media Laws In India

Social media laws in India are in limelight these days. Social media websites are very popular among technology savvy as well as ordinary Netizens. More and more Netizens are joining social platforms to share their opinions, views, data and details. However, social networking laws in India are not adequate and properly drafted.Social media includes social networking sites, blogs, forums, wikis,

Internet Censorship In India

Internet in India is under potential threat of censorship and e-surveillance. Internet censorship in India has increased a lot. Similarly, e-surveillance in India has also increased to intolerable limits.India has a draconian but cyber criminals’ friendly cyber law in the form of information technology act, 2000 (IT Act 2000). It was amended in 2008 to confer unregulated e-surveillance, Internet

Online Dispute Resolution Services Are Growing

International online dispute resolution (international ODR) is no more a fiction. With growing disputes being resolved through an online mechanism, ODR has also assumed significance. ODR has significant advantages over not only traditional litigation methods but also against alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms.International community is working really hard in the direction of

Surveillance of Internet Traffic In India

E-surveillance in India is no more a secret as Indian government is openly engaging in e-surveillance activities. This is despite the fact that an unregulated and unguided e-surveillance is violating the civil liberties protection in cyberspace in India.Now e-surveillance is proposed to be expanded to even mobile infrastructure. The cell site location based e-surveillance in India is also in

Yahoo Took Indian Government To Court Over E-Surveillance

E-surveillance in India has become a big nuisance for intermediaries like internet service providers (ISPs), e-commerce sites, search engines, e-mail providers, etc. The liability of Internet intermediaries for copyright violations is also well known that has further increased the troubles of intermediaries in India.Intermediaries liability for cyber law due diligence in India has become very

Data Privacy Laws In India

Privacy rights and data protection are essential for protecting civil liberties and commercial interests. We do not have a dedicated privacy law in India as well as data protection law in India. There is no second opinion that privacy laws in India and data protection law in India is needed.Privacy rights and laws in India have been ignored for long. Privacy rights in India in the information era

Are Indian Satellites Safe From Cyber Attacks?

Cyber attacks and cyber espionage by one nation against another are very common these days. Though nations are attacking one another through cyber intrusions yet none of them come forward to accept the same. Whether we like it or not but cyber attacks and cyber espionage would continue to be used by various nations against each other.This process is a part of traditional strategic information

Indian Legal Workforce Needs To Be Skill Driven

Practical training and skills are two of the most important attributes of a successful and highly paying career. These attributes are also the most commonly absent essentials of various educational courses. As a natural result, almost 75% of the educated masses are either unemployable or simply not suitable for the relevant jobs.Even Indian companies are facing shortage of skilled workforce to

National Cyber Security Policy of India Is Needed

Cyber security policy and strategy is an important aspect of national security. Till now we have no national security policy of India. There is no second opinion about the fact that national security policy of India is required and the sooner it is drafted and implemented the better it would be for India.In fact, national security of India is affected by turf war that is putting the entire

Indian Defense And Security Against Cyber Warfare

Of late, India is increasingly targeted for cyber espionage, cyber warfare, cyber terrorism and many similar cyber attacks. Indian response to the same remained lukewarm. Obviously the news of sophisticated Malware targeting Indian critical infrastructure is no big surprise.For instance, some claim that Stuxnet Malware was responsible for the destruction of an Indian broadcasting satellite.

Virtual Campuses Can Eliminate Corruption In Higher Education Of India

All of you must remember Jaspal Bhatti’s flop show and the episode pertaining to PhD. The episode explained how PhD researchers in India are exploited by their supervisors in cash and kind. That was a classical comedy that portrayed the corrupt higher educational system of India.Years have passed but the bitter truth still prevails in India. Although HRD minister Kapil Sibal is doing great to

Privacy Laws In India

We have no dedicated privacy laws in India and data protection laws in India. Naturally, this is a troublesome and undesirable situation. The supreme court of India has interpreted Article 21 as empowering Indian citizens with right to privacy in India.However, despite this constitutional protection, various governmental projects in India are opening ignoring Article 21 and are clearly violating

Cyber Warfare Policy Of India

Cyber Warfare is a concept that is not clear yet. Some believe that there is nothing like Cyber Warfare as there is no involvement of traditional military actions. Others believe that Cyber Warfare is a reality of the present time and future wars would be fought in Cyberspace. Whatever the opinion may be but it is clear that Nations have to protect their Critical ICT Infrastructures and Strategic

Cyber Warfare Against India

Cyber warfare is a concept that is still haunting the international community. The situation is so serious that north atlantic treaty organisation (NATO) has sought stronger cooperation with India to counter growing cyber threats.Cyber warfare is still a murky area as different countries deal with cyber attacks and cyber warfare attacks differently. While countries like US are considering it as

Cyber Crimes Investigation Training In India

Modernisation of police force of India requires not only basic knowledge of information and communication technology (ICT) but also practical trainings in the areas like cyber law, cyber crimes investigation, cyber forensics, etc.Cyber crimes investigation capabilities in India are not up to the standards. Law enforcement agencies of India need to develop good techno legal cyber skills to improve

National Cyber Security Policy Of India

The recent cyber attacks upon India have proved once again that we need to pay more attention to cyber security in India. Cyber security in India is required not only to protect sensitive information stored in the computers of strategic Indian departments and ministries but also to safeguard the present and future critical infrastructure of India.Not only critical infrastructure protection in

Cyber Attacks Are Affecting Indian Critical Infrastructure

These days information and communication technology (ICT) has become an indispensable part of our day to day life. Many critical infrastructures have now been connected with ICT in one form or another.This is the reason why we need to ensure critical infrastructure protection in India and critical ICT infrastructure protection in India. We also need to strengthen the cyber security of India and

E-Commerce Laws In India

Information and communication technology (ICT) has changed the way we make our commercial transactions. Even payments for such online dealings and transactions can be made through an online mode. One such commercial use of ICT is electronic commerce.Electronic commerce in India (E-commerce in India) has slowly and steadily entered the Indian market. Toady from tickets booking to purchasing of

Indian Centre For ICT In Parliament

World over parliaments are becoming aware of the benefits of information and communication technology (ICT). India is also following the pursuit. However, the use of ICT by Indian parliament is very limited and traditional in nature.For instance live telecasting of the proceedings of parliament, maintaining of websites by parliament, etc are some of the examples where ICT has been used by Indian

Online Commercial Arbitration In India

Arbitration is a cost effective and expeditious dispute resolution mechanism. A majority of commercial disputes are resolved through the mode of arbitration. International commercial arbitration has also become an emerging trend these days. Generally, an arbitration clause is incorporated in various contracts and commercial contracts that prescribe resolution of a future dispute through

ICT Research And Training Centres In India

Information and communication technology (ICT) is a specialised field that requires good working knowledge and expertise. ICT covers many areas like ICT legal framework, cyber security, cyber forensics, e-learning, e-commerce, e-governance, electronic services delivery, digital preservation, etc.Further, ICT is no more technological in nature these days. Today ICT has to take care of both

ICT Training Institutes In India

Information and communication technology (ICT) has transformed the way we live in today’s environment. All aspects of our day to day life have ICT as an essential component. ICT has also transformed the way trainings are imparted for various professional courses.These days training, education and courses are imparted in an online environment through e-learning method. Skills developments are also

Legal E-Learning Courses In India

E-learning has changed the entire game of education providing in India. In a country like India, qualitative and timely education is very difficult to find. Universities, colleges and educational institutions of India are not only overcrowded but they are also following the traditional and old academic model.This has sacrificed practical trainings and skills development in India to a greater

Electronic Warfare Would Be The Norm In Future

Electronic warfare is assuming the centre stage in the present day’s warfare. Signal intelligence (SIGINT) is often combined with electronic warfare to make it more effective. Incidences of use of technology for electronic warfare and SIGNIT are on rise.For instance, approximately two years before, the Pentagon fixed a security breach that allowed insurgents to hack into data feeds from pilotless

Jeff Radebe Denies Regulation Of Blackberry’s Messenger Services In South Africa

Research in Motion’s (RIM) Blackberry Service is under fire and facing E-Surveillance Regulations in various Nations. Of course, this is a “gross lack of understanding” of Technology and a “futile exercise” to control the same.India is one such Nations that believe that E-Surveillance is better than and a substitute of Cyber Security. India seems to be a country that believes that an Internet

Indian Social Media Framework And Guidelines For Government Organisations

Social networking has become a phenomenon these days. India has a staggering numbers of social networking users that is constantly increasing. Social networking is an equivalent of real life associations and groups. Sooner or later India would require considering this social phenomenon as it would touch all the aspects of Indian culture and life.

Till now we have no social media policy in India.

Cyber Security Laws, Lawyers And Law Firms

Techno legal fields like cyber law, cyber security, cyber forensics, cyber warfare, cyber terrorism, etc were never considered to be a cup of tea for lawyers and law firms. This may be due to many factors like lack of knowledge, absence of suitable cyber security laws, non remunerative nature of techno legal issues, etc.

One positive development that I have recently noted about these techno

Patents Applications In India Are Declining

The number of Patents applications and the corresponding number of their grants determine the innovative and intellectual property regime of a nation. While a very liberal Patent regime is also not desirable yet it must also not be too restrictive. Indian Patent regime is a balance one but some signs of decline are now apparent.Patent law of India has been in existence for a considerable long

Mobile Governance Policy Of India

Mobile governance (m-governance) is an innovative method of using mobile technologies for effective governance and public services delivery. M-governance facilitates many public services in almost real time and without hassles. However, along with the benefits of m-governance it has many drawbacks as well.Firstly, we have no implementable m-governance policy in India. In the absence of proper

International Cyber Security Policy Framework And Indian Response

International Organisations are not taking much interest in the field of Cyber Security and prevention of Cyber Crimes. Of course, at the National level countries like US have laid down their International Strategy for Cyberspace.The Government Departments in US have also shown an increased Cooperation in the field of Cyber Security. Now US Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Homeland

Microsoft And Skype Are Playing Lawful Interception Card

World over Lawful Interception Laws are cited as the reason for E-Surveillance and Eavesdropping. However, almost all of these so called Lawful Interception Laws are themselves “Unconstitutional”.Take the example of Indian Cyber Law the Information Technology Act 2000 (IT Act 2000) that carries many draconian E-Surveillance provisions without any “Procedural Safeguards”. These provisions and laws

Online Cyber Law Education In India

Online education is in its infancy stage in India. This is more so for techno legal courses like cyber law, cyber forensics, cyber security, professional techno legal courses, etc where neither the traditional education and training institutions nor the contemporary education and training institutions are well versed.Here comes the importance of online cyber law education in India. Cyber law is a

Online Legal Training In India Rejuvenated

Legal training is not an easy task to achieve. This is more so in the contemporary era where information technology (IT) has changed the entire landscape of legal education and training.For instance, few years back law colleges and universities were not aware about the concept of cyber law. Now law colleges and universities have started offering courses in cyber law and similar topics. Although

Best Legal Training Providers In India And Asia

Legal education and legal training are two different things. While the former is on the side of acquiring academic qualification the latter is more important as it provides workable skills to the manpower. In other words, legal training helps in the development of necessary skills that help in the growth of a person’s career and profession.Legal training and skill development has not received

Online Lawyers Professional Trainings In India And Asia

Indian government has been taking information and communication technology (ICT) seriously these days and the same applies to law ministry as well. Law ministry has been planning to use ICT for multiple legal and judicial purposes. From legal education and training to establishment of e-courts in India, law ministry of India has plans for all.Lawyers play the central role in all legal and

Digital Preservation Mandates Of Public Records Act 1993

Digital Preservation in India and Digitilisation of traditional records are in the infancy stage. This is so because we have no Legal Framework for E-Governance in India. We have no law that mandatorily requires creation of Electronic Records. Of course, very soon such law may be required due to International pressure and National requirements.Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act, 2000) is

E-Discovery Outsourcing, LPO And KPO Services In India

Outsourcing industry is witnessing many ups and downs in India. This is natural in a dynamic environment in which we live today. However, information and communication technology (ICT) related outsourcing issues are posing the biggest challenge before the outsourcing industry of India.Indian outsourcing industry carries on business process outsourcing (BPO), legal process outsourcing (LPO),

E-Discovery Laws And Practices In India

Electronic discovery or e-discovery is a crucial component of corporate management, litigation services, response management, cyber security and so on. E-discovery is used for multiple purposes and by varied organisations and individuals these days.E-discovery has many purposes to achieve. It can be used as an effective measure to prevent frauds from being committed by timely detection of

Legal Framework For E-Governance In India

Electronic governance in India (e-governance in India) is still at its infancy stage. Most of the e-governance projects of India under the national e-governance plan (NEGP) are still in the pipeline despite the deadline being passed long before. This is despite the fact that thousand of crores of public money has already been utilised for e-governance projects of India but without any

E-Delivery Of Public Services Development Policy Loan Of India

E-Delivery of Public Services is the testing bed for any successful E-Governance Project. If essential Public Services cannot be delivered through use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), there is no successful E-Governance implementation.In India as well essential Public Services are still not successfully integrated with ICT and E-Governance has to cover a long distance before it

Techno Legal Decryption Solutions By PTLB

A Government Panel has recently given its opinion that Encrypted Services in India would not be banned even if the Intelligence agencies cannot “Intercept” these Encrypted Communications. This would not be pleasant news for Home Ministry of India and Intelligence Agencies of India who now have to acquire Techno Legal Intelligence Gathering Skills to deal with Encrypted Communications.Home

Cyber Forensics Laws In India

Cyber Forensics in India is still to be approved as an important part of Legal and Judicial System of India. Till now we do not have a specific and dedicated Cyber Forensics Law in India. Cyber Forensics is an amalgamation of Legal and Computer Science principles. Thus, it is essentially Techno Legal in nature.This Techno Legal nature of Cyber Forensics has raised certain problems before the Law

Cyber Crisis Management Plan Of India

Crisis Management is an important aspect of planning and management of any project or eventuality. If we have a proper Crisis Management Plan, losses of lives and property is minimised to a great extent. We have Crisis Management Plans in India against floods, earthquakes and other natural calamities. However, are we prepared for Cyber Crises in Indian Cyberspace?India has formulated a Crisis

The Draft Intelligence Services (Powers and Regulation) Bill, 2011

A Draft Bill titled the Intelligence Services (Powers and Regulation) Bill, 2011 has been recently circulated in the Lok Sabha. The Bill has been circulated by Manish Tewari, Member of Parliament. The bill though circulated but could not be introduced as the Lok Sabha was adjourned sine die on Friday. It is likely to be introduced in the next session of Parliament. The Bill intends to

First Techno Legal Cyber Crimes Investigation Manual Of India

Cyber law is a technical subject and this is the reason why law enforcement officials, lawyers and judges find it difficult to understand and apply. This is also the reason that we have a very bad conviction ratio for cyber criminals in India.The task of police, lawyers and judges would become easier if there is a ready reference that they can refer and rely upon in cases of cyber crimes.

E-Discovery In India And Its Uses

ByBaljeet Singh Electronic discovery has many purposes to achieve. It can be used as an effective measure to prevent frauds from being committed by timely detection of suspicious activities. It can also be used for detection of these frauds and crimes after their commission. Thus, e-discovery is both preventive and curative in nature.E-discovery must be regulated by a legal framework to give it

Cyber Due Diligence Could Have Prevented Citibank Fraud

ByPraveen Dalal The Gurgaon based Branch of Citibank was in controversies recently due to the fraud committed by one of its employees. Many depositors and high networth individuals (HNIs) of Citibank were defrauded upto the tune of Rs 460.91 crore in that fraud.The modus operandi of the crime was very simple. The accused committed the fraud by mobilising funds to the tune of Rs 460.91 crore

Banking Regulation Act Amendments Approved By Cabinet

ByPraveen Dalal Finance Ministry of India and Reserve Bank of India (RBI) have been working in the direction of bringing many good Financial and Banking Sector Reforms in India. In this direction RBI has already issued two good policy documents that would streamline use of Information Technology to enhance core banking practices in India.The first document is a report of its Working Group on

Chief Information Officers (CIOs) Made Mandatory For All Banks In India

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) executive director G Gopalakrishna recently said that all banks would have to create a position of chief information officers (CIOs) as well as steering committees on information security at the board level at the earliest. G Gopalakrishna further said the banks will have to implement the facility of “second factor verification” at merchant establishments and ATMs

Intelligence Infrastructure Of India Is in Big Mess

ByPraveen Dalal Intelligence Gathering and its timely Analysis and Utilisation are the bench mark of any good and effective Intelligence Infrastructure. When the terrorists attacked Mumbai recently, lack of Intelligence Sharing proved fatal.Although Intelligence Inputs were available, they were not shared and made available in a timely manner. In other words, although Intelligence Agencies did no

India’s Premier Book On Cyber Forensics In India

Cyber Forensics is an important field that is gaining importance in India. However, there is very scarce Research Material on Cyber Forensics in India. Further Techno Legal Research Material on Cyber Forensics is even lesser.Keeping this in mind, the First Edition (September 2010) of Exclusive Techno Legal Book on Cyber Forensics in India has been published by Perry4Law/Perry4Law Techno Legal

Draft Electronic Delivery Of Services Bill 2011

ByPraveen DalalThe Draft Electronic Delivery of Services Bill 2011 (EDS Bill 2011) is a recent legislative exercise by the Central Government of India. The EDS Bill 2011 intends to provide delivery of Government services to all citizens by electronic means by phasing out of manual delivery of services delivered by the Government including matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.It

Internet Kill Switch Is A Misnomer

Of late lots of people are using the term “Internet Kill Switch”. But is it possible to kill Internet altogether or is it possible to completely turn off Internet in a big country that is highly dependent upon computers and Internet?While Egypt has proved that a complete shut off of a national portion of Internet is possible but this does not mean that a single country, even United States of

India Is Blind Towards Cyber Law, Cyber Security And Cyber Forensics

Information Technology Act 2000 (IT Act 2000) of India deals with E-governance, E-commerce, Cyber Contraventions and Cyber Crimes. However, it is a poorly drafted law and badly implemented legislation. It is weak and ineffective in dealing with growing Cyber Crimes in India as it is the most “Soft and Cyber Criminal Friendly Legislation” of the World.Indian Cyber Law is the exclusive cyber law

Reverse Engineer Malware Through REMnux

Dennis Fisher has written a story on a tool known as REMnux. According to the story malware reverse engineering expert Lenny Zeltser has released a stripped-down Ubuntu distribution in the form of REMnux so that malware can be analysed by reverse engineering process. The tool carries many popular malware-analysis, network monitoring and memory forensics tools for analysing the malware and

Law Enforcement Intelligence In India

Law enforcement intelligence is an area largely unexplored in India. Till not the law enforcement agencies of India are predominantly relying upon traditional methods of intelligence gathering and investigations. There is no doubt that these traditional methods would always remain useful; and nothing can substitute them. However, information and communication technology (ICT) can further

Crime And Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) Project Of India

Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) Project Of India (CCTNS Project) is a very ambitious project of Indian government. It is the most comprehensive modernisation and reformative initiative of government of India to streamline law enforcement in India till date. The project is in its initial stage and it may face both technical as well as legal challenges and civil liberties

Law Enforcement In India Needs Techno-Legal Solutions

Modernisation of police force and establishing the supporting infrastructure for better policing and quicker responses to crimes, cyber crimes and national crises like terror attacks requires a techno-legal approach. Neither technology nor legal framework alone is sufficient to tackle these issues. However, absence of either law or technology would also fail any initiative that intends to

Use Of ICT For Legal And Judicial Reforms In India

ByPraveen DalalThe Bar Council of India (BCI) and Law Minister Mr. Veerappa Moily are all set to bring legal and judicial reforms in India. Although the steps taken by both BCI and Moily are great yet they are clearly shying away from use of information and communication technology (ICT) for legal and judicial purposes.The BCI failed to provide an online platform where legal education and exams

India Should Not Use SaaS For Crucial Governmental Functions

Software as a Service (SaaS) is in media reports for long. SaaS is a web-based version of proprietary software that performs computing on its servers on behalf of the client. Cloud computing is one of the most famous forms of SaaS. It is projected as a panacea for many infrastructure related problems and cost saving. While cloud computing has considerable cost benefits but it has drawbacks as

The Extra Steps That TOR Users Must Take

ByPraveen DalalThe “Decloaking Engine” invented by HD Moore was one of the most effective ways of showing how exit nodes of TOR system can sniff the unencrypted, plain text and insecure information and data passing through it. A malicious or e-surveillance capable exit node is the weakest link of the privacy and security chain of a TOR user. However, the problem is not with the TOR’s system as

Linux On The Top

ByPraveen DalalLinux is synonymous with open source and free software movement. The name “Linux” comes from the Linux kernel, originally written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux being technical in nature, users were shying away from using the same. The proprietary software also played a major role in the limited growth of Linux as these proprietary software are more easy to use than command based

Ubuntu Live CD As A Forensics Tool

Ubuntu is one of the best open source computer operating system based on the Debian GNU/Linux distribution. Ubuntu provides an up-to-date, stable operating system for the average user, with a strong focus on usability and ease of installation. The Ubiquity installer allows Ubuntu to be installed to the hard disk directly from the Live CD, without requiring the computer to be restarted prior to

Metasploit Version 3.4.0 Released

The penetration testing professionals must rejoice the latest Metasploit Version 3.4.0 release. This is a wonderful tool that can be downloaded from here. It has many crucial improvements from its predecessor.Metasploit now has 551 exploit modules and 261 auxiliary modules. It has got a brute force support and the release includes several major improvements, especially to Meterpreter, which is

Techno-Legal Online Cyber Security Research, Training And Educational Centre of India

Cyber security management is a tough task especially if it is techno-legal in nature. In that case one has to manage not only the technical aspects but also the legal aspects. Perry4Law is the leading Techno-legal ICT law firm of World. It has many techno-legal segments like Perry4Law Techno-Legal Base (PTLB), Perry4Law Techno-Legal ICT Training Centre (PTLITC), etc. Perry4Law is also running

Online Dispute Resolution In India Strengthened

India is not using ICT for dispute resolution whether it pertains to e-courts or contemporary out of court dispute resolution in the form of online dispute resolution. Fortunately, the first ever Techno-Legal Online Dispute Resolution Centre of India has been launched by Perry4Law that would cater the dispute resolution, training, educational and many more such crucial requirements in

First E-Judiciary Training And Consultancy Centre Launched In India

India is at the initial stages of establishment of electronic courts (e-courts). Though India has done a good job by computerising the courts at various levels yet it is still far from the establishment of even the first e-court of India. It seems the e-courts project of India needs a techno-legal training boost.Perry4Law and PTLB have launched the first ever e-courts training and consultancy

Techno-Legal Education In India Got A Boost

Legal education in India is in the process of transformation. However, there are urgent educational and legal reforms that must be undertaken by India as soon as possible. One such area that requires urgent attention is the amalgamation of legal education with information and communication technology (ICT). For instance, cyber law is an important facet of such an interaction of technology and

Cyber Law Training And Coaching In India Rejuvenated

Cyber law is a subject that is less appreciated and even lesser applied in India. Whether it is the law making in this regard or its execution and enforcement, by and large cyber law scenario in India needs rejuvenation.The position in this regard cannot be improved till we inculcate appropriate knowledge and skills at the initial stages of education. Cyber law education in India is at its


The final and stable version of Backtrack 4 series is a wonderful penetration testing, cyber security and cyber forensics tool. It is not only a powerful utility but is also useful for multiple purposes. The best part is that it is available to the security and forensics community free of cost.Although Backtrack has always been a good tool but its team(s) must be congratulated for not only

Cyber Laws All Over The World Are Becoming Unreasonable And Oppressive

Cyber Laws all over the World are intentionally designed to violate civil rights like privacy, speech and expression, etc. They are also intentionally formulated to facilitate “Internet Censorship” and “E-Surveillance” beyond the legitimate limits of “National Security”. This approach is more dangerous and is detrimental to the national security in the long run.The Google’s episode regarding

Techno-Legal Cyber Forensics Services In India

Forensics is the process of using scientific knowledge for collecting, analysing, and presenting evidence to the courts. (The word forensics means “to bring to the court.”). Going by this definition, Cyber Forensics means bringing admissible digital evidence before the court.

Cyber Forensics v. E-Discovery

Despite popular belief, Cyber Forensics is different from E-Discovery, Digital Recovery or other synonymous terms. Cyber Forensics primarily caters the “Legal Requirements” whereas E-Discovery meets the requirements of private individuals and organizations.

Take an example of a security breach like hacking in an organisation.

The management of the organisation decides to trace the origin of this breach. After proper analysis they come to know about the source of that breach. Till this stage it is only an E-Discovery. The management can take whatever preventive or remedial measure as it may deem fit.

If the management decides to take a “Legal Action” against the offender, it has to prove the acquired digital evidence before the Court of Law. Mere E-Discovery may not be enough to prove the guilt of the accused as legal requirements regarding evidence and procedural laws must also be complied with. When the E-Discovery is “Law Compliant” it becomes “Cyber Forensics”.

Similarly, there are certain laws that require individuals and organisation to exercise “Cyber Law Due Diligence” and “Statutory Cyber Law Compliances”. These requirements may fall either in the category of E-Discovery or Cyber Forensics as per the facts and circumstances of each case.

Live v. Dead Forensics

Cyber Forensics may be live or dead. Traditionally, Cyber Forensics Investigations were performed after pulling the plug and then subsequently imaging the media under investigation. The contemporary practice is to perform live analysis to get useful volatile data that is lost the moment a computer is turned off or after the pulling of the plug.

Cyber Forensics Services Of Perry4Law

Perry4Law is the “First and Exclusive” Techno-Legal and Cyber Forensics Firm of India and one of the Best in the World. Its “Professional Services” are not only unique but also matchless. It provides a wide variety of Techno-Legal Service including Cyber Forensics Services. Being the only Cyber Forensics Firm of India and Techno Legal Cyber Law Firm of India, it has developed “Domain Specific” Cyber Forensics Capabilities and Expertise.

Policy And Law Making

Perry4Law has been playing a decisive role in the enactment and amendment of various Techno-Legal Laws in India. For instance, it has played a crucial role in the strengthening the Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act, 2000) of India by suggesting useful provisions regarding Cyber Terrorism in India, Data Protection Law in India, Obscenity and Pornography Provisions, etc. At the same time it has also advised the Government of India (GOI) not to violate the “Civil Liberties” of the Indian Citizens by unreasonable and unconstitutional provisions in the IT Act, 2000.

Similarly, Perry4Law has also played a key role in suggesting useful provisions regarding Cyber Security in India and Cyber Forensics in India. It has also provided Guidelines and Policies for Protecting and Safeguarding the Critical ICT Infrastructure Protection in India. Besides, it has been providing ICT Trends of India for many years and is the only Firm that has provided ICT Strategies of India to the GOI.

We have been providing ICT trends in India since 2005-06. The ICT Trends in India 2009 and subsequent trends have discussed both the positive and negative aspects of Indian ICT Policies and Strategies.

Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) have also provided Cyber Crimes Trends in India 2012, Cyber Law Trends in India 2012, Cyber Security Trends in India 2012, etc. Previous years trends have also been provided by Perry4Law and PTLB to give various stakeholders a good look of Cyber Forensics And ICT Environment of India.

Legal Enablement Of ICT Systems In India

Perry4Law has provided a good Legal Framework for Information Society in India by suggesting suitable provisions for Legal Enablement of ICT Systems in India. While stressing upon a strong Cyber Law it has also stressed upon the importance of robust Cyber Security and effective Cyber Forensics Capabilities. Perry4Law has also provided a framework for E-Courts in India that are not only technically viable but also legally sustainable.

Law Enforcement and Intelligence Agencies

Perry4Law has provided its suggestion regarding Legal Enablement Of Law Enforcement And Intelligence Agencies In India. It has also provided its suggestions regarding Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) of India, National Intelligence Grid (Natgrid) Project of India, Central Monitoring System (CMS) Project of India, etc. Measures for effective and strong Wireless Security and prevention against Cyber Crimes and Cyber Terrorism have also been suggested by it.

Wish To Know More
If you wish to know more about
Perry4Law Organisation and its Services kindly download this document titled “About Perry4Law”.

Briefly speaking, Perry4Law provides Domain Specific Techno-Legal Litigation and Consultancy Services in various fields like Cyber Laws in India, Cyber Security in India, Computer Security in India, Cyber Forensics in India, Cyber War in India, Computer Forensics in India, Cyber Terrorism in India, Critical Infrastructure Protection in India, Critical ICT Infrastructure Protection in India, Legal Enablement of ICT Systems in India, Legal Framework for Information Society in India, Cyber Law Compliances in India, Due Diligence Compliances in India, Techno-Legal ADR and ODR in India, etc. Perry4Law is the Best Techno-Legal Cyber Law and Cyber Forensics Firm in India and one of the best in the World. It has the best Cyber Law Consultants in India/Worldwide. For Professional Cyber Law, Cyber Security, Cyber Forensics and other Techno-Legal Professional Services, you may “Contact Us” with necessary details and our Professional Fees and Charges. Kindly see the “Binding Legal Agreement” before Contacting Us.

Contacting Perry4Law

Any person or institution interested in seeking the Professional Techno-Legal Services of Perry4Law must “Contact Us” and follow the requirements mentioned therein. Telephone Conversation Facility and a Meeting after the Appointment is Fixed are also available subject to Advance Payment of the “Hourly Rates” of the respective partner(s).

National Security And Internal Security Infrastructure Of India

National security of India has recently received a rejuvenation attempt by the Government of India (GOI). This is good news at a time where the national security issues are grossly ignored in India. The national security of India and internal security of India are suffering not only on the count of lack of political will but also due to absence of suitable policies and strategies.The ICT Trends


A blue print of the National Mission for Delivery of Justice and Legal Reforms (NMDJLR) has been recently released by the Law Minister M Veerappa Moily. The NMDJLR Plan is a very ambitious plan and if implemented properly may go a long way in reducing the backlog of cases in India on the one hand and effective Judicial Reforms on the other.However, keeping in mind the prior experience of the


Perry4Law is the First and Exclusive Techno-Legal ICT Law Firm in India and one of the best in the World. Perry4Law Techno-Legal Base (PTLBTM/SM) is managing various Techno-Legal Consultancy, Litigation, Research, E-Learning, Higher Education and many more such “Highly Specialised” and “Domain Specific Services”.Some areas where Perry4Law can collaborate and provide its Specialised Techno-Legal


Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) Project (CCTNS Project) has been approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs. It has a financial cushion of Rs.2000 Crores as per the 11th Five Year Plan. The Project would be initiated by the Ministry of Home Affairs and implemented by the National Crime Records Bureau. The CCTNS project is to be implemented in a manner where the


The merit and competency of Indian Judiciary is well known all over the World. There is virtually nothing that Indian Judiciary is not capable of resolving. However, there is always scope for the improvement. One such improvement that is urgently required to be adopted, implemented and inculcated by the Judges of District Courts, High Courts and Supreme Court of India pertains to Techno-Legal


Cyber terrorism is a controversial term. Some authors choose a very narrow definition, relating to deployments, by known terrorist organizations, of disruption attacks against information systems for the primary purpose of creating alarm and panic. By this narrow definition, it is difficult to identify any instances of cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism can also be defined much more generally, for


In recent years, the frequency and sophistication of cyber security attacks on global Critical Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Infrastructure (Critical ICT Infrastructure) has greatly increased. Cyber-security experts have been warning of the vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure like Power, Energy, Transportation, Water Systems, etc to malicious hackers. Recently hackers have