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Consolidated FDI Policy Of India 2012 By DIPP

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links to our previous posts on the topic consolidated FDI policy of
India 2012 in every subsequent post. Therefore, Perry4Law
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Techno Legal Base (PTLB) have decided to report
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This post would act as the base for all
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FDI In Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) In India 2012

The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India (GOI) has released the Consolidated FDI Policy of India 2012. The FDI policy 2012 has become effective from April 10, 2012.

The FDI policy 2012 has provided certain crucial definitions that must be well known to all concerned. Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) have already shared the general conditions to be followed by all concerned to make successful and legal FDI in India.

In this post, Perry4Law and PTLB would share the conditions precedent for FDI in Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) in India as per the Consolidated FDI Policy of India 2012 of DIPP.

FDI in LLPs in India is permitted, subject to the following conditions:

(i) FDI will be allowed, through the Government approval route, only in LLPs operating in sectors/activities where 100% FDI is allowed, through the automatic route and there are no FDI-linked performance conditions (such as ‘Non Banking Finance Companies’ or ‘Development of Townships, Housing, Built-up infrastructure and Construction-development projects’ etc.).

(ii) LLPs with FDI will not be allowed to operate in agricultural/plantation activity, print media or real estate business.

(iii) An Indian company, having FDI, will be permitted to make downstream investment in an LLP only if both-the company, as well as the LLP- are operating in sectors where 100% FDI is allowed, through the automatic route and there are no FDI-linked performance conditions.

(iv) LLPs with FDI will not be eligible to make any downstream investments.

(v) Foreign Capital participation in LLPs will be allowed only by way of cash consideration, received by inward remittance, through normal banking channels or by debit to NRE/FCNR account of the person concerned, maintained with an authorized dealer/authorized bank.

(vi) Investment in LLPs by Foreign Institutional Investors (FIls) and Foreign Venture Capital Investors (FVCIs) will not be permitted. LLPs will also not be permitted to avail External Commercial Borrowings (ECBs).

(vii) In case the LLP with FDI has a body corporate that is a designated partner or nominates an individual to act as a designated partner in accordance with the provisions of Section 7 of the LLP Act, 2008, such a body corporate should only be a company registered in India under the Companies Act, 1956 and not any other body, such as an LLP or a trust.

(viii) For such LLPs, the designated partner “resident in India”, as defined under the ‘Explanation’ to Section 7(1) of the LLP Act, 2008, would also have to satisfy the definition of “person resident in India”, as prescribed under Section 2(v)(i) of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999.

(ix) The designated partners will be responsible for compliance with all the above conditions and also liable for all penalties imposed on the LLP for their contravention, if any.

(x) Conversion of a company with FDI, into an LLP, will be allowed only if the above stipulations are met and with the prior approval of FIPB/Government.

Consolidated FDI Policy Of India 2012 By DIPP: Objectives

Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) would like to inform that the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India (GOI) has issued the Consolidated FDI Policy of India 2012. The same would be effective from April 10, 2012.

The consolidated FDI policy of India 2012 reflects the intent and objective of the GOI to attract and promote foreign direct investment (FDI) in order to supplement domestic capital, technology and skills, for accelerated economic growth. FDI, as distinguished from portfolio investment, has the connotation of establishing a lasting interest in an enterprise that is resident in an economy other than that of the investor.

To achieve this objective, the Indian Government has put in place a policy framework on FDI, which is transparent, predictable and easily comprehensible. This policy framework has been incorporated in the Consolidated FDI Policy of India 2012, which may be updated every year, to capture and keep pace with the regulatory changes, effected in the interregnum.

DIPP, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, GOI makes policy pronouncements on FDI through Press Notes/ Press Releases which are notified by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as amendments to the Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or Issue of Security by Persons Resident Outside India) Regulations, 2000 (notification No.FEMA 20/2000-RB dated May 3, 2000). These notifications take effect from the date of issue of Press Notes/ Press Releases, unless specified otherwise therein. In case of any conflict, the relevant FEMA Notification will prevail. The procedural instructions are issued by the Reserve Bank of India vide A.P. Dir. (series) Circulars. The regulatory framework, over a period of time, thus, consists of Acts, Regulations, Press Notes, Press Releases, Clarifications, etc.

The present consolidation subsumes and supersedes all Press Notes/Press Releases/Clarifications/ Circulars issued by DIPP, which were in force as on April 09, 2012, and reflects the FDI Policy as on April 10, 2012. This Circular accordingly will take effect from April 10, 2012. Reference to any statute or legislation made in this Circular shall include modifications, amendments or re-enactments thereof.

Notwithstanding the rescission of earlier Press Notes/Press Releases/Clarifications/Circulars, anything done or any action taken or purported to have been done or taken under the rescinded Press Notes/Press Releases/Clarifications/Circulars prior to April 10, 2012, shall, in so far as it is not inconsistent with those Press Notes/Press Releases/Clarifications/Circulars, be deemed to have been done or taken under the corresponding provisions of this circular and shall be valid and effective.

Legal Formalities Required For Starting E-Commerce Business In India

E-commerce laws and regulations in India are still evolving. This has created a sort of confusion and uncertainty among e-commerce entrepreneurs in India. While some have opened e-commerce outlets through websites others are exploring a more appropriate and legal way of running an e-commerce business in India.

Legal issues of e-commerce in India vary as per different business models. For instance, electronic trading of medical drugs in India requires more stringent e-commerce and legal compliances as compared to other e-commerce activities. Digital communication channels for drugs and healthcare products in India are scrutinised more aggressively than other e-commerce activities. In fact, regulatory and legislative measures to check online pharmacies trading in banned drugs in India are already in pipeline.

Besides there are many legal formalities that are required in order to start a company and e-commerce activity in India. A business can be operated as:

(1) Sole Proprietorship.

(2) Partnership.

(3) Company – Public/Private.

(4) Limited Liability Partnerships (LLP).

Mostly people decide to open a private company to substantiate an e-commerce activity and this article would cover that aspect alone. To incorporate a private limited company you must approve its name, registered office address, have at least 2 directors with director identification numbers (DINs), must have a minimum authorised capital of Rs. 1 Lakh, memorandum of association (MOA) and articles of association (AOA), digital signature certificates (DSCs) wherever applicable, etc. Once these conditions and requirements are fulfilled, a certificate of incorporation is sent by post to the registered office of the newly registered company.

The private limited company is also required to comply with income tax related compliances. These include obtaining permanent account number (PAN), tax deduction account number (TAN), value added tax (VAT) registration and obtaining of tax identification number (TIN), professional tax if applicable, service tax, etc.

In certain cases, compliance with labour laws is also required. For instance, the Shops and Establishment Act is a legislation implemented by various States in India. The Act lays down mutual statutory obligation and rights of employers and employees. Registration of shop/establishment is mandatory within 30 days of commencement of work. Other workmen and labour related legislations cover areas like employees provident fund, employees state insurance, etc.

However, e-commerce in India is also required to be conducted in a legally permissible manner. This is more so when the information technology act 2000 (IT Act 2000) prescribes stringent penal and pecuniary penalties for violation of its provisions during e-commerce transactions.

The e-commerce players must ensure cyber law due diligence in India. This is more so when the cyber law due diligence for companies in India has become very stringent and foreign companies and websites are frequently prosecuted in India for non exercise of cyber due diligence.

The legal requirements for undertaking e-commerce in India also involve compliance with other laws like contract law, Indian penal code, etc. Further, online shopping in India also involves compliance with the banking and financial norms applicable in India. For instance, take the example of PayPal in this regard. If PayPal has to allow online payments receipt and disbursements for its existing or proposed e-commerce activities, it has to take a license from Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in this regard. Further, cyber due diligence for Paypal and other online payment transferors in India is also required to be observed.

Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) wish all the best to all e-commerce players in India and abroad.

Is Cloud Computing A Viable Solution In India?

Cloud computing has been projected as an essential requirement in India these days. However, this assertion fails to mention that cloud computing in India is legally risky. The rush for use of cloud computing in India has also ignored the analysis whether cloud computing is a viable solution in India or not.

Cloud computing to be viable and sustainable must be supported by many elements including a sound regulatory framework for the same. Till now we have no dedicated regulatory framework for cloud computing in India. In fact, we have no legal framework for cloud computing in India at all.

As per the recent research and studies of Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB), cloud computing in India is risky and India is not ready for cloud computing. This conclusion of Perry4Law and PTLB has been endorsed by other companies and it has been reported that chief information officers (CIOs) in India are not comfortable using cloud computing in India.

Absence of an effective cloud computing policy of India is responsible for limited utilisation of cloud computing in India. However, legal issues of cloud computing in India are the main reason for cautious adoption of cloud computing in India.

Further, India is a country that has weak privacy, data protection and data security laws. India is also infamous for its e-surveillance and eavesdropping exercises without any constitutional laws backing the same. Phone tapping in India is not done in a strictly constitutional manner and we also lack a lawful interception law in India.

With the information technology amendment act, 2008 (IT Act 2008), the cyber law of India has been amended and this has also made it vulnerable to constitutionality attacks. With projects like national intelligence grid (Natgrid), crime and criminal tracking network and systems (CCTNS), central monitoring system (CMS), etc e-surveillance in India has reached its zenith.

In this background we have to analyse the use of cloud computing in India. Cloud computing in India cannot succeed till we have trust in the service provider. We cannot trust a service provider who can be forced to disclose even the most sensitive information and data without a court order.

In India a mere order from the Indian government or its agencies is enough for the service provider to share sensitive information. There is no judicial scrutiny of a warrant that is absolutely required in these circumstances. So you cannot be even sure what government agencies are looking at and what information they are taking from the service provider.

Any business model must essentially balance profit motives and risks associated with the business. Similarly, the users of cloud computing services must ensure that the convenience of software as a service (SASS) and cloud computing is much greater than the risks of data leakages and manipulations.

Till now the legal opinion is weighting against the use of cloud computing and SAAS in governmental departments and for governmental projects. Without a conducive legal framework, user’s data in India is not safe. Let us create a conducive commercial and legal environment before we jump upon cloud computing wagon.

National Telecom Policy 2012 Of India By TRAI

National Telecom Policy of India 2011 was suggested in the past and now it has been revised by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI). The proposed National Telecom Policy 2012 of India is an improvement over the Policy suggested in 2011.

Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) provided its techno legal public inputs in this regard and many of them have been endorsed by TRAI.

Some of the suggestions of Perry4Law and PTLB that have been accepted by TRAI pertain to issues like establishing servers in India, establishing cloud computing legal framework in India, establishment of telecom security in India, reconciling privacy rights and law enforcement requirements, reconciling privacy rights and national security requirements, adoption of lawful interception methods, telecom dispute resolution reforms in India, crisis management and emergency response services, delivery of e-services in a time bound manner, digitisation of governmental records, establishing cloud computing best practices in India, encryption and privacy issues of cloud computing, establishing a centralised monitoring system in India, etc.

The following are the core techno legal provisions that have been suggested by TRAI and many of these suggestions have also been provided by Perry4Law and PTLB in the past:

(1) Servers: Ensure that all servers on which sensitive data are hosted are located within the country and ensure that all local content is hosted on servers located within the country.

(2) Cloud Services: To setup an efficient cloud computing environment.

(a) Adopt best practices to address the issues related to cloud services;
(b) Create a secure network for cloud computing covering encryption and privacy;
(c) Create a legal and security frame work covering network security, law enforcement assistance and preservation of cross-border data flows for deployment of Cloud Services;
(d) TRAI to devise appropriate mechanisms to provide interoperability among cloud computing service providers.

(3) Security: To ensure security of the information in the telecom network and monitoring of the information, compliant with the objectives of national security.

(a) Keeping in view individual privacy and in line with international practices, develop and deploy a state of the art system for providing assistance to Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs);
(b) Mandate and enforce that the Telecom Service Providers take adequate measures to ensure the security of communication in/through their networks by adopting contemporary information security standards;
(c) Create an institutional framework through regulatory measures to ensure that safe-to-connect devices are inducted into the Telecom Networks;
(d) Build national capacity in all areas that impinge on Telecom network security and communication assistance for law enforcement, such as security standards, security testing, interception and monitoring capabilities and manufacturing of critical telecom equipment;
(e) Ensure that all equipments supplied to the telecom service providers are in conformity with the laid down security and safety standards;
(f) Mandate, on consideration of recommendations from TRAI, standards in the areas of functional requirements, safety and security and in all possible building blocks of the communication network i.e. devices, elements, components, physical infrastructure like towers, buildings etc;
(g) Develop a rational criterion for sharing of costs beyond a threshold limit between Government and the service providers in implementing security measures.

(4) Quality of Service: To ensure better quality of experience for telecom consumers.

(a) Quality of Service and consumer interests being under TRAI’s domain, TRAI will appropriately lay down the end-to-end system performance standards, Quality of Service parameters, and measures to Protect consumer interest; (covers all issues of QoS listed in the draft NTP)
(b) TRAI to be given necessary powers including the power to enforce including penalty provisions, to enforce the observance by the service provides of the laid down standards /parameters;
(c) Undertake legislative measures to bring disputes between telecom consumers and service providers within the jurisdiction of Consumer Forums established under Consumer Protection Act.

(5) Emergency Response Services: To enable access to telecommunication services in times of emergency and disasters.

(a) Entrust TRAI, under clause 11 (1) (b) of TRAI Act, with the development of nationwide Unified Emergency Response Mechanism by providing nationwide single access number for emergency services;
(b) To ensure availability of communication to agencies connected with law and order, security and disaster management during calamities and emergencies.

(6) Development of E-Applications: To facilitate the development of e-applications, particularly in Education, Health, Agriculture, Skill development, Small and Medium Enterprises, e-Governance, e-Commerce, e-banking.

(a) Promote an ecosystem for participants in VAS industry value chain to develop applications, particularly to meet the needs of the rural citizens;
(c) Incentivise companies involved largely with the development of e-applications for rural areas and in regional languages;
(c) Put in place an appropriate regulatory framework for delivery of VAS at affordable price so as to fuel growth in entrepreneurship, innovation and provision of region specific content in regional languages;
(d) Encourage development of mobile phones based on open platform standards and leverage the mobile device for enabling secure transactional services including online authentication of identity;
(e) Work with handset manufacturers and international standards bodies to make e-applications interoperable in Indian languages;
(f) Incentivise application developers to provide customized applications suitable for local needs;

(7) Enabling Delivery of E-Services to Rural Areas: To deliver e-services provided by various government agencies to the citizens.

(a) Promote synergies between roll-out of broadband and various Government programs viz. e-governance, e-Panchayat, NMEICT, MNREGA, NKN, AADHAR, AAKASH tablet etc.;
(b) Digitize the content available in the government departments;
(c) Coordinate with State Governments and different Ministries in Government of India such that all procedures are amended, to ensure digital delivery of services, in a definite timeframe;
(d) Coordinate with State Governments and different Ministries in Government of India such that all personnel are trained in a definite timeframe to achieve the desired degree of competence in understanding of the revised procedures and delivery of services;
(e) Equip all the Panchayats and Villages Centres with the requisite Hardware and train the personnel;
(f) Stimulate the demand for e- applications and services by working closely with Department of IT in the promotion of local content creation particularly in regional languages.

(8) Empowering Urban Citizens: To empower citizens in the urban areas through establishment of Fiber networks and deployment of applications required for smart cities and towns.

(a) Provide fiber to home/kerb as an integrated access to meet ICT requirements of urban citizens;
(b) Make regulatory changes to unbundle fiber infrastructure;
(c) Coordinate with State Governments and different Ministries in Government of India such that all procedures for services in urban areas are amended in a definite timeframe to ensure digital delivery of services;
(d) Coordinate with State Governments and different Ministries in Government of India such that all personnel are trained in a definite timeframe to achieve the desired degree of competence in understanding of the revised procedures and delivery of services;
(e) Digitize the content and data available in the government departments, in a definite timeframe;
(f) Provide policy support including standards implementation, for secure communication of information within and between different sectors;
(g) Develop a regulatory framework for Machine to Machine communications;

(9) Innovation and IPR Creation: To promote entrepreneurship, innovation and IPR creation for indigenous product development and its commercialisation.

(a) Develop detailed guidelines for promotion of innovation and IPR creation;
(b) Promote Indian products viz., products having Indian IPR, by stipulating a mandatory market share;
(c) Create a Telecom Research and Development Corporation (TRDC) for setting up of an R&D fund and establishing a Research and Development Park;
(d) Establish a Telecom Research and Development Park for facilitating research, IPR creation and commercialization;
(e) Facilitate access to financial resources on favorable terms and provide fiscal incentives to relevant R&D institutions;
(f) Assist researchers to obtain IPRs for their innovation;
(g) Set up an autonomous Telecommunications Standard Development Organization (TSDO) to develop standards to meet national requirements, to generate IPRs and to participate in international standardization bodies to contribute in formulation of global standards;
(h) Create suitable testing infrastructure to aid in development of new products and services;
(i) Encourage the entrepreneurs to develop and commercialize Indian products by making available requisite funding (pre-venture and venture capital), management and mentoring support.

Corporate Skills Development In India Is Required

Corporates across the world are struggling to hire skilled and knowledgeable workforce. Surprisingly, only 20 to 25% of graduates and professionals are worth employment in these corporates. Educational institutions producing these graduates are not only outdated but are also academic in nature. They do not provide practical trainings and workable experience to these graduates.

India is no different in this regard and Indian government has a tremendous job in hand to change this situation. Skills developments in India are urgently required to change this position. Further keeping in mind the techno legal requirements of present times, techno legal skills development in India are also required.

Techno legal areas like cyber law, cyber security, cyber forensics, ethical hacking, etc are worst affected. In the name of technical education mere academic diplomas and degrees are provided that are not helping the students in any manner whatsoever.

Perry4Law, Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) and Perry4Law Techno Legal ICT Training Centre (PTLITC) believe that information and communication technology (ICT) can help Indian government in achieving the goals set by it regarding skills development. For instance, use of e-learning, online education and distance learning education system can not only ease the pressure from traditional universities and educational institutions but would also help in providing technical and practical education to masses across India.

Perry4Law, PTLB and PTLITC are providing exclusive techno legal e-learning courses in India and techno legal skills development trainings and courses in India. PTLB is providing various techno legal courses for corporate executives, CEOs, CIOs, etc.

Companies and CEOs are required to follow cyber law due diligence in India and must comply with the requirements of Internet intermediaries to get the safe harbour protection under Indian laws. PTLB is providing exclusive techno legal cyber law trainings for corporate executives and CEOs in India.

These trainings have been specifically designed so that corporate executives and CEOs can successfully comply with Indian laws, especially information technology act, 2000 (IT Act 2000) that is the cyber law of India. If you are interested in our techno legal trainings, kindly enroll with us in this regard.

We are committed to improve the techno legal skills developments in India are looking forward for suitable partners and associates in this regard. Read our e-learning blog for regular updates in this regard.

E-Commerce Dispute Resolution In India

Electronic commerce brings both comforts and discomforts to its users. The comforts include on the spot sales and purchase, competitive costs, convenience, saving of time, etc. The discomforts include frauds and cyber crimes committed against e-commerce users. At times there are disagreements and dissatisfactions as well among buyers and purchasers that cannot be resolved using traditional litigation methods.

This is the reason why we need alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanism to resolve e-commerce disputes in India. E-commerce regulations and laws in India are limited in nature and this does not allow use of ADR mechanisms and technology driven solutions. For instance, while European Union and other nations are increasingly using online dispute resolution (ODR) for resolving many aspects of e-commerce disputes yet online dispute resolution (ODR) in India is still not known.

Similarly, establishment of e-courts in India can also facilitate early and effective e-commerce disputes resolutions in India. However, till February 2012 we are still waiting for the establishment of first e-court in India. E-courts and ODR in India are urgently required to reduce backlog of cases and for reducing increasing pressure upon traditional courts. E-courts and ODR can also help in e-commerce disputes resolutions in India.

Some of the areas where we must pay special attention include technology related dispute resolution in India, film, media and entertainment industry dispute resolution in India, cross border e-commerce dispute resolution in India, etc. E-courts and ODR can be effectively used for all the abovementioned purposes.

E-commerce players in India have many techno legal obligations to follow and cyber law due diligence in India is one such obligation. Not only legal requirements for undertaking e-commerce in India are stringent but even Internet intermediaries liability in India must be taken seriously by companies engaged in online transactions and businesses.

Realising that cyberspace can bring many commercial benefits; both individuals and companies are ensuring that they have strong online presence. More and more brand promotion and protection in India are done these days in an online environment. Companies and individuals are also ensuring domain name protection in India so that their reputation and goodwill is not misappropriated by others. Brand protection, reputation management and domain name cyber squatting disputes are at rise and the same can be resolved using e-courts and ODR in India.

However, there is a general lack of awareness regarding use of e-courts and ODR for e-commerce disputes resolution. Further, there are very few e-commerce lawyers and law firms in India that can provide expert services in this regard. E-commerce players must also be aware that other laws, including intellectual property laws, can make these e-commerce players labile for civil and criminal actions. For instance, these e-commerce players can be held liable for online infringement of copyright in India of the copyright owners. Similarly, if any person posts an offending material at the e-commerce site or otherwise deal with the e-commerce site in an illegal manner, the e-commerce site owner may find himself in trouble.

Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) strongly recommend that before opening an e-commerce website or business, the owner of the same must consult a good techno legal law firm that can advice him upon all the possible and applicable aspect of e-commerce laws in India. Further, Perry4Law and PTLB also recommend active use of e-courts and ODR in India for resolving e-commerce disputes resolutions in India and corporate disputes in India.

We also believe that more effective and useful e-commerce laws in India must be formulated that expressly deal with e-commerce aspects in India. Let us hope that these suggestions would be implemented by Indian government very soon.

New GTLDs Applicants Must Ensure Due Diligence Before Applying

As the readers of the blog are aware Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) has already laid down stringent conditions for the acceptance of an application for registration of new GTLDs. The application amount for normal applicants has been quantified at US $ 1, 85,000. This would keep the non serious applicants out of the race to get a new GTLD.However, merely giving this

ICANN’s New Generic Top-Level Domains (GTLDs) Registration: Risks And Benefits Analysis

The allotment of new generic top level domain names (new GTLDs) by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) has been recently approved. Now the process of registration of new GTLDs is in full swing. The new GTLDs application process has started from 12 January 2012 and would end on 29th March 2012. As on 12-02-2012, the applicants have 46 more days to apply for new GTLDs.

While the brand and trademark owners can register their brands and trademarks as the GTLDs yet the entire process is not free from troubles and risks. There would be many unforeseen challenges that would crop up before the applicants. Even the filing of a GTLD application would not be an easy task and would require techno legal expertise.

According to ICANN, the new GTLDs promise to expand the domain name system (DNS) and change the Internet forever. However, ICANN warns that the decision to apply for a new GTLD should not be entered into lightly. This is so because applying to run your own GTLD is not the same as registering a second-level domain name. When you apply for a new GTLD you are applying to run a registry business. You will be responsible for a critical and highly visible piece of Internet infrastructure. This would include legal, administrative, financial and management responsibilities to be fulfilled.

The potential benefits of managing GTLDs include entrepreneurship, increased control, ongoing revenue stream, innovative marketing opportunity, innovative business models, internationalised Domain Names (IDNs), engaging your community, bring together your geographic area, etc.

The potential risks and responsibilities include high investments, possible loss of investment in case of non allotment of applied GTLD, compliance with contractual restrictions, staffing, competition, uncharted territory, etc.

Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) strongly suggest that this is not a complete list of all the risks. Do not rely on this list alone. You should do your own independent research and consult your own technical, business, and legal experts. This list is provided only as general information to get you started.

The introduction of new GTLDs will affect most organisations. Whether or not you decide to apply for a new GTLD, you should still pay attention to the process. In May 2012, once all the applied-for strings have been posted, you will have an opportunity to object to any that you believe would infringe your legal rights. We would cover the Legal Rights Objections under ICANN’s New GTLD scheme separately.

Cyber Security Laws In India

With the growing incidences of cyber attacks against India, cyber security in India has got the attention of Indian government. Cyber security in India is not satisfactory. Whether it is legal framework or practical implementation, cyber security of India is still lagging far behind that other nations.We have no dedicated cyber security laws in India and we urgently need a dedicated cyber

Google And Facebook To Remove Offending Contents Within 15 Days

Companies like Google, Facebook, etc are facing civil and criminal trials in India. In fact, representative of these companies have been asked to personally appear before a criminal court on 13th March 2012. Today a civil court has given 15 more days to companies like Google, Facebook, etc remove objectionable contents form their websites.

The entire issue revolves around Internet intermediaries’ liability in India. Companies like Google, Facebook, etc are Internet intermediaries as per the provisions of Information Technology Act 2000 (IT Act 2000). The IT Act 2000 is the cyber law of India that covers dealings of these companies in cyberspace. If these companies fails to ensure cyber law due diligence in India, they are liable to be prosecuted in India.

Cyber due diligence for companies in India has been ignored for long. However, companies and individuals are now facing legal challenges for ignoring the same. There are certain simple procedures that can be adopted to ensure compliance with Indian laws.

For instance, foreign companies and websites must appoint nodal officers to comply with Indian laws. Similarly, these companies and websites must also formulate an India specific legal strategy to tackle cyber law and intellectual property violation issues more properly.

Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) believe that these companies must ensure compliance with Indian laws in true letter and spirit. The Information Technology (Intermediaries Guidelines) Rules, 2011 of India must be specially taken care of by all Internet intermediaries of India.

Companies like Twitter and Google have already taken initiatives to comply with Indian laws. Twitter has put in place a country specific mechanism to remove offending tweets. Google has also started redirecting Indian bloggers to ***.blogspot.in domains instead of ***.blogspot.com domain. This method would allow Google to remove offending contents pertaining to ***.blogspot.in alone once a valid legal request is made from Indian government or individuals residing in India.

Presently, civil and criminal cases are pending against companies like Google, Facebook, etc before various courts in New Delhi. Before the Delhi High Court, the respondent/complainant of the criminal complaint has placed it final arguments on 02-02-2012 and the petitioner companies would put its final arguments on 14-02-2012.

The civil court of New Delhi would analyse the compliance report of Google, Facebook, etc on 01-03-2012. The 22 firms involved in the case have to submit in writing that they have deleted the content before the next hearing. The criminal trial’s hearing is scheduled on 13th March 2012 where representatives of foreign companies have to be personally present. It seems foreign companies would have a busy month ahead.

Google Incorporation’s Indian Strategy To Counter Legal Disputes

Google is increasingly finding itself involved in various regulatory issues around the globe. Even the Indian shares of legal disputes with Google have increased a lot. Presently, Google is facing a criminal trial in New Delhi and representatives of Google would appear before a Court in New Delhi on 13th March 2012.

In the meantime, a new privacy policy and terms of service (ToS) by Google have also been suggested that would become applicable from 01-03-2012. However, European Union officials have asked Google to put on hold this policy implementation. Only time would tell whether this policy would be implemented or not.

Google has also started redirecting Indian bloggers to ***.blogspot.in domain from the original ***.blogspot.com domain. This way Google can “selectively remove” offending contents in a particular jurisdiction like India and leave the same contents available in other jurisdictions.

Whether it is copyright violation, trademark violation, cyber law infringements or any similar legal issue, Google has been facing many regulatory and legal hurdles. Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) believe that Google has been doing its level best to resolve disputes of various parties though many times disputes are not resolved as per desired expectations. However, Google needs to do something more to avoid future cyber litigations and disputes that are going to increase in India

In order to avoid unnecessary troubles, Google must appoint a nodal officer in India. Further, Google must also keep in mind the privacy rights and laws in India, data protection laws of India, Internet intermediary liability in India and many more such issues.

Perry4Law and PTLB believe that the most important aspect of Google Incorporation’s policy to counter Indian legal disputes is to segregate Indian and non Indian based legal disputes. While dealing with Indian disputes, the Indian team and nodal officer must be pro active. While dealing with disputes involving foreign jurisdictions, Google’s core team may be involved.

Perry4Law and PTLB further believe that legal arguments based upon “subsidiary status” are not good in the long term. Rather, these arguments reflect the “evasive approach” and should be abdicated as soon as possible. Instead a pro active approach must be adopted by Google where legally tenable requests must be entertained immediately and pressure tactics and arm twisting methods should be fought to the maximum possible extent.

Perry4Law and PTLB hope that Google would find these suggestions worth consideration.

Data Protection Laws In India

We have no dedicated data protection laws in India. Data of individuals and companies require both constitutional as well as statutory protection. The constitutional analysis of data protection in India has still not attracted the attention of either Indian individuals/companies nor of Indian government.

The statutory aspects of data protection in India are scattered under various enactments. The Information Technology Act 2000 (IT Act 2000), which is the cyber law of India, also incorporate few provisions regarding data protection in India. However, till now we have no dedicated statutory and constitutional data privacy laws in India and data protection law in India.

Further, we do not have a dedicated privacy law in India as well. Privacy rights in India are still not recognised although the Supreme Court of India has interpreted Article 21 of Indian constitution as the source of privacy rights in India. Just like data protection, provisions pertaining to privacy laws in India are also scattered in various statutory enactments. Privacy rights and laws in India need to be strengthened keeping in mind the privacy rights in India in the information age.

Another related aspect pertains to data security in India. In the absence of proper data protection, privacy rights and cyber security in India, data security in India is also not adequate. Further, we do not have a dedicated cyber security law in India as well.

Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) believe that data protection requirements are essential part of civil liberties protection in cyberspace. With the growing use of information and communication technology (ICT), data protection requirement has become very important. It would not be wrong to assume privacy and data protection rights as integral part of human rights protection in cyberspace.

Perry4Law and PTLB believe that Indian government must formulate different laws for privacy, data protection and data security. The IT Act 2000 has already committed the mistake of incorporating all cyberspace related aspects at a single place. This has resulted in a chaos and we have no effective law for any aspect of cyberspace.

Perry4Law and PTLB suggest that India government must formulate separate laws for issues like privacy, data security and data protection.

Legal Issues Of Cloud Computing In India

Cloud computing is a process in which essential hardware and software based services are provided by a third party with no requirement to install such hardware and software by the service seeker. In other words, computational powers, hardware upgrades and latest software are provided on rent in an online environment where individuals and organisations can use the same.Cloud computing is basically

Online Legal Due Diligence In India

Legal due diligence in India is passing through a transformation stage. Concepts like electronic legal due diligence in India and technology related due diligence in India are frequently heard in India these days.

Till now legal due diligence in India is mainly performed in a traditional manner. Physical storage of information and documents in the data rooms is the traditional method of making available information for due diligence and various legal purposes.

However, virtual data rooms (VDRs) have changed the entire scenario. Using data rooms for legal compliances and mergers and acquisitions in India and abroad is giving way to using VDRs for the same and many more legal and non legal purposes. Clearly, virtual data rooms and legal compliances in India are increasingly seen as inseparable and more stress is given to perform online legal due diligence in India these days.

VDRs and online legal due diligence in India would also facilitate e-discovery in India. Presently, e-discovery services in India are still grooming. Some recent episodes have shown the importance of e-discovery for social media in India.

However, we need privacy laws in India, data protection laws in India and data security laws in India to make online due diligence a success in India. Similarly, use of is also not desirable at this stage unless there are sufficient procedural, legal and technical safeguards at place. Cloud computing in India is still not trusted and most of the clouds computing service providers in India are not aware of the stringent laws of India that they frequently violate.

The cyber law trends in India 2012 by Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) have clearly projected that cyber law due diligence in India would going to increase. In fact cyber law due diligence for Indian companies has become so important that it must be made a part of their policies and corporate strategies. One thing that is inevitable in India is the use of online legal due diligence in India in the coming years.

Merger And Acquisition Trends In India 2011

In this special column, Ms. Geeta Dalal, Partner at Perry4Law and a Techno Legal Corporate and Business Restructuring Expert, is discussing the merger and acquisition trends of India in the year 2011.

Merger and acquisition has seen many ups and downs in the year 2011 and many crucial developments took place in 2011.

Corporate mergers and acquisitions (M & A) in India are very common. India has been updating its corporate merger and acquisition regulations in India from time to time. Recently, Competition Commission of India (Procedure in regard to the transaction of business relating to combinations) Regulations, 2011 were formulated by the by Competition Commission of India. The main objective of the same was to regulated the combinations formulated in an anti competition manner in India.

Regulatory environment touching mergers and acquisitions in India was also streamlined in the year 2011 and stress upon and technological developments were made. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is planning to use electronic initial public offer (IPO) in India. Foreign investments in pharmaceutical in India has been liberalised by Reserve Bank of India. Similarly, foreign direct investment (FDI) in India has also been liberalised in many crucial areas. Naturally, lots of investments, IPOs, private equity funds exchange and many more collaborative and cooperative activities would take place in India in the year 2012.

The year 2011 envisaged an attempt by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to regulate banking related mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in India. With the clearance of the Banking Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2011 by the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Finance, this may be the reality very soon.

Further, to streamline the banking transactions, an integrated banking law in India has been proposed. Similarly, the cap upon mobile banking financial transactions in India has been removed by the RBI. These reforms would help merger and acquisition transactions in India in the coming years.

Although there was a slow down in the merger and acquisition deals in India in 2011 yet India’s energy, mining and utilities sector witnessed a sound growth. The telecommunication sector faced the biggest setback in India and there were very few M&A dealing in this sector in 2011.

Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) would come up with the projected or forecasted merger and acquisition trends in India 2012 very soon.

Banking Related Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) in India

In this special column, Mr. B.S.Dalal, Senior Partner at Perry4Law and a Techno Legal Banking and Financial Expert, is discussing the current position of mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector of India.

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in India are governed by the various laws. The anti competitive nature of such mergers and acquisition is regulated by the competition commission of India under the competition act, 2002.

Till now all mergers and acquisitions related anti competition issues of banks are governed by the competition commission of India. However, Banking Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2011 has proposed a new section 2A that provides that “Notwithstanding anything contrary contained in Section 2 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, nothing contained in Competition Act, 2002, shall apply to any banking company, the State Bank of India, any subsidiary bank, any corresponding new bank or any regional rural bank or cooperative bank or multi-state cooperative bank in respect of the matters relating to amalgamation, merger, reconstruction, transfer, reconstitution or acquisition under respective Acts.”

Through this amendment, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is trying to remove the scrutiny of competition commission of India over banking related mergers and acquisitions and keeping the same within its own jurisdiction and powers.

The Banking Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2011 was introduced in Lok Sabha on 22 March, 2011 and referred to Standing Committee on Finance for examination and report on 24 March, 2011. The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Finance of India has given a conditional nod for introduction of Banking Laws Amendment Bill 2011.

Before the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Finance, it has been suggested that the exemption of bank mergers etc. from the scrutiny of the competition commission of India (CCI) would allow RBI to approve bank mergers in public /depositors’ interest, in the interest of the banking system in India and to secure the proper management of the banking company in a timely manner without waiting for approval of the CCI.

The Committee, while supporting the Government’s proposal to keep bank mergers etc., outside the purview of Competition Commission of India for the time being, recommended that this exemption should be considered as a special case and an expedient measure to be revisited in due course in the light of experience gained by both the regulators in question, namely the RBI and the Competition Commission of India. This however does not in any manner convey the Committee’s views on mergers or acquisition policy in banking sector as such, which is an issue meriting a separate discourse.

As Reserve Bank of India has been entrusted with the mandate to grant approval for acquisitions, transfer, mergers etc. in the banking sector, the Committee expect that the Reserve Bank of India would conduct due diligence of “fit and proper” persons/entities and take sufficient safeguards while stipulating conditions as to credentials, source of funds, track record, financial inclusion etc. before granting approvals under this clause.

The Committee also recommended that the Government can consider the merits of issuing non-voting shares as an avenue to expand the capital base of banks without allowing concentration of management control in a few hands and which would also enable them to grow faster.

The Committee also felt that as amendments are being proposed by Government frequently in banking law covering different aspects at different points of time, the Committee would recommend that the Government, instead of bringing piecemeal amendments, should consider formulating an integrated modern banking law for India, which will be comprehensive and will consolidate all related provisions and aspects of banking presently dispersed in different statutes. It may include such other fresh and forward-looking proposals reflecting emerging realities as may be considered necessary by the Government for inclusion in the integrated banking law.

Clearly, once the proposed amendments are passed, the mergers and acquisitions of banks will now come under the purview of the Banking Regulation Act. This means M&A in banking sector would no more require the approval of the Competition Commission of India.

Other banking related reforms are also in pipeline. The Government of India has recently passed a resolution for the constitution of Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission (FSLRC) of India. The main objective of constitution of FSLRC is to rewrite and harmonise financial sector legislations, rules and regulations. This had become necessary as the institutional framework governing India’s financial sector was built over a century and the same has become redundant for the contemporary requirements.

Some of the areas that FSLRC can analyse and consider pertain to merger and acquisition norms, non banking financial companies regulation, wealth management regulations, cyber security for banking and financial institutions, due diligence by banks and financial sectors of India, etc.

Non banking finance companies (NBFC) laws in India have also been streamlined by Supreme Court of India. A Bench consisting of Justice Markandey Katju and Justice Gyan Sudha Misra upheld the “constitutional validity” of such State laws and termed such laws as salutary measures which were long overdue to deal with scamsters.

Banking related mergers and acquisitions in India are heading for a big change and all those interested in the same must keep a close watch upon it.

Cyber Law Trends Of India 2012

The cyber law trends of India 2011 were provided by Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB). This trend covered many techno legal issues that are of tremendous importance to various stakeholders. However, it seems various stakeholders have still not taken issues like cyber law, cyber security, cyber due diligence, e-discovery, social media due diligence, etc seriously.The year 2012 would

US Companies, India, Conflict Of Laws And Criminal Liabilities

Companies like Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, etc and social media websites like Facebook, etc are currently facing criminal trail in India for not removing objectionable contents from their respective websites.According to cyber law of India and laws of other jurisdiction, the safe harbour protection of Internet intermediaries is lost the moment they are notified of the offending act or omission.

Corruption And Technology Related Due Diligences In India

The recent spate of corruption related disclosures in India has sent a strong message to Indian and foreign companies to ensure that their business are strictly in compliance with Indian and foreign laws. Naturally, companies that have entered into merger and acquisitions (M&A) in the past are now looking forward to ensure that nothing fishy happened during such M & A transactions.These Indian

Cyber Law Of India Should Be Reformed

Technological issues when collaborated with legal framework bring complex situations. It is very difficult to provide a legal framework for technological issues. India is also trying to grapple with this problem. Although cyber law in India has been enacted in the form of information technology act 2000 (IT Act 2000) yet it has remained archaic and non performer. The cyber law trends in India

Financial Frauds And IT Crimes In Indian Companies Is Increasing

Financial frauds and cyber crimes have plagued Indian corporate sector. IT and cyber frauds in Indian companies has increased a lot. Corporate IT frauds and cyber crime investigations in India have also increased. This has also necessitated cyber due diligence for Indian companies.White collar crimes and financial frauds are increasing in India. By its very nature these high profile crimes affect

Corporate IT Frauds And Cyber Crimes Investigation In India

Corporate frauds and crimes have taken a new shape in the present information technology age. Data theft, privacy violations, intellectual property rights (IPRs) violation, trade secrets theft, financial frauds, etc have also increased in the corporate sector of India. Even white collar crimes and organised crimes have increased a lot.Clearly, IT and cyber frauds in Indian companies have

Cyber Due Diligence For Indian Companies

Cyber due diligence in India has finally arrived in India. The information technology act, 2000 (IT Act 2000) is the sole cyber law of India. IT Act 2000 prescribes cyber due diligence requirements on the part of various stakeholders like banks, companies, individuals, Internet intermediaries, e-commerce sites, etc.However, till now cyber due diligence in India has not been taken seriously. This

IT And Cyber Frauds In Indian Companies Is Increasing

White collar crimes and financial frauds are increasing in India. By its very nature these high profile crimes affect corporate sector. Indian companies are also facing increased corporate frauds, financial frauds, white color crimes and technological frauds.With growing dependence upon information and communication technology (ICT) for various corporate functions, corporate systems and corporate

E-Delivery Of Public Services Development Policy Loan (DPL) Project Of India

Electronic delivery of services is an effective method to introduce transparency in governmental dealings and to reduce corruption therein. Similarly, e-delivery of services can also bring efficiency that can reduce costs and unnecessary time taking by government departments.For instance, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is planning to use electronic initial public offer (E-IPO) in

Electronic Bail Granting And Communication System In India

Granting of bail in a criminal matter ensures the right to life and liberty of an individual. While granting a bail, it is ensured that the normal life off the grantee is not jeopardised due to the initiation of a criminal proceeding. In many cases, although the bail is granted yet its communication and final execution may take some time. This seems to be an unreasonable exercise and avoidable

Electronic Commerce Laws In India

Technology has brought many important changes the way we deal in our day to day lives. Whether it is e-governance or e-commerce, individuals and companies are equally benefited due to use of technology.

Realising that cyberspace can bring many commercial benefits; both individuals and companies are ensuring that they have strong online presence. More and more brand promotion and protection in India are done these days in an online environment. Companies and individuals are also ensuring domain name protection in India so that their reputation and goodwill is not misappropriated by others.

We have no dedicated e-commerce laws in India. However, the information technology act 2000 (IT Act 2000), which is the sole cyber law of India, is regulating the e-commerce business and transactions in India. Internet intermediaries liability in India under the IT Act 2000 is very stringent. Cyber law due diligence in India is one aspect that all e-commerce site owners must frequently engage in.

Electronic commerce in India (E-commerce in India) has slowly and steadily entered the Indian market. Toady from tickets booking to purchasing of good and services, everything happens in an online environment.

Of course, where commercial transactions occur, disputes and differences are bound to occur. To prevent and resolve these disputes we need norms, regulations and laws that are acceptable to all the stakeholders.

The e-commerce law of India is primarily incorporated in the information technology act, 2000 (IT Act 2000) that takes cares of legal obligations of both sellers and buyers of good and services in cyberspace.

The IT Act 2000 prescribes rules and norms for online contract formulation. The traditional concepts of offer, acceptance etc, as applicable under the contractual laws, have also been covered by the IT Act 2000. The only difference is that they have been customised as per the requirements of cyberspace.

However, e-commerce transactions and contracts also attract certain additional legal liabilities that e-commerce players in India are not very much aware. For instance, very few e-commerce players in India are aware that they are “intermediaries” within the meaning of IT Act 2000. Further, there are very few e-commerce lawyers and law firms in India that can provide expert services in this regard.

Further, other laws, including intellectual property laws, make these e-commerce players labile for civil and criminal actions. For instance, these e-commerce players can be held liable for online infringement of copyright in India of the copyright owners.

Similarly, if any person posts an offending material at the e-commerce site or otherwise deal with the e-commerce site in an illegal manner, the e-commerce site owner may find himself in trouble.

Cyber law due diligence in India is one aspect that all e-commerce site owners must frequently engage in. The present laws of India are stringent in nature and subsequently claiming ignorance of such laws would not make much difference.

Perry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) strongly recommend that before opening an e-commerce site or business, the owner of the same must consult a good techno legal law firm that can advice him upon all the possible and applicable aspect of e-commerce laws in India.

E-Commerce Laws In India

Technology has brought many important changes the way we deal in our day to day lives. Whether it is e-governance or e-commerce, individuals and companies are equally benefited due to use of technology.Realising that cyberspace can bring many commercial benefits; both individuals and companies are ensuring that they have strong online presence. More and more brand promotion and protection in

Cyber Law On Social Media And Networking Sites In India

Social media and networking sites have a crucial role to play. Now even governments across the world acknowledge this importance of social media websites. India is one such country that is currently trying to deal with social media sites. However, we have no dedicated social media laws in India. It has even been reported that guidelines for social media contents monitoring in India would be

Social Networking Laws In India

With the fast growing social networking platforms in India it has become essential to enact effective social media laws in India. Presently social networking laws in India are not mature enough to take care of social media in the most appropriate manner. Social media is considered to be an Internet intermediary as per Indian cyber law. The recent controversy of Internet censorship in India has

Social Media Laws In India

Social media laws in India are in limelight these days. Social media websites are very popular among technology savvy as well as ordinary Netizens. More and more Netizens are joining social platforms to share their opinions, views, data and details. However, social networking laws in India are not adequate and properly drafted.Social media includes social networking sites, blogs, forums, wikis,

E-Commerce Laws In India

Information and communication technology (ICT) has changed the way we make our commercial transactions. Even payments for such online dealings and transactions can be made through an online mode. One such commercial use of ICT is electronic commerce.Electronic commerce in India (E-commerce in India) has slowly and steadily entered the Indian market. Toady from tickets booking to purchasing of

Online Commercial Arbitration In India

Arbitration is a cost effective and expeditious dispute resolution mechanism. A majority of commercial disputes are resolved through the mode of arbitration. International commercial arbitration has also become an emerging trend these days. Generally, an arbitration clause is incorporated in various contracts and commercial contracts that prescribe resolution of a future dispute through

Online Lawyers Professional Trainings In India And Asia

Indian government has been taking information and communication technology (ICT) seriously these days and the same applies to law ministry as well. Law ministry has been planning to use ICT for multiple legal and judicial purposes. From legal education and training to establishment of e-courts in India, law ministry of India has plans for all.Lawyers play the central role in all legal and

Digital Preservation Mandates Of Public Records Act 1993

Digital Preservation in India and Digitilisation of traditional records are in the infancy stage. This is so because we have no Legal Framework for E-Governance in India. We have no law that mandatorily requires creation of Electronic Records. Of course, very soon such law may be required due to International pressure and National requirements.Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act, 2000) is

E-Discovery Laws And Practices In India

Electronic discovery or e-discovery is a crucial component of corporate management, litigation services, response management, cyber security and so on. E-discovery is used for multiple purposes and by varied organisations and individuals these days.E-discovery has many purposes to achieve. It can be used as an effective measure to prevent frauds from being committed by timely detection of

First Techno Legal Cyber Crimes Investigation Manual Of India

Cyber law is a technical subject and this is the reason why law enforcement officials, lawyers and judges find it difficult to understand and apply. This is also the reason that we have a very bad conviction ratio for cyber criminals in India.The task of police, lawyers and judges would become easier if there is a ready reference that they can refer and rely upon in cases of cyber crimes.

Techno-Legal Online Cyber Security Research, Training And Educational Centre of India

Cyber security management is a tough task especially if it is techno-legal in nature. In that case one has to manage not only the technical aspects but also the legal aspects. Perry4Law is the leading Techno-legal ICT law firm of World. It has many techno-legal segments like Perry4Law Techno-Legal Base (PTLB), Perry4Law Techno-Legal ICT Training Centre (PTLITC), etc. Perry4Law is also running

First E-Judiciary Training And Consultancy Centre Launched In India

India is at the initial stages of establishment of electronic courts (e-courts). Though India has done a good job by computerising the courts at various levels yet it is still far from the establishment of even the first e-court of India. It seems the e-courts project of India needs a techno-legal training boost.Perry4Law and PTLB have launched the first ever e-courts training and consultancy

Techno-Legal Education In India Got A Boost

Legal education in India is in the process of transformation. However, there are urgent educational and legal reforms that must be undertaken by India as soon as possible. One such area that requires urgent attention is the amalgamation of legal education with information and communication technology (ICT). For instance, cyber law is an important facet of such an interaction of technology and

Cyber Law Training And Coaching In India Rejuvenated

Cyber law is a subject that is less appreciated and even lesser applied in India. Whether it is the law making in this regard or its execution and enforcement, by and large cyber law scenario in India needs rejuvenation.The position in this regard cannot be improved till we inculcate appropriate knowledge and skills at the initial stages of education. Cyber law education in India is at its

BACKTRACK 4 FINAL RELEASE: AN ESSENTIAL TOOL IN YOUR CYBER SECURITY AND CYBER FORENSICS ARSENAL

The final and stable version of Backtrack 4 series is a wonderful penetration testing, cyber security and cyber forensics tool. It is not only a powerful utility but is also useful for multiple purposes. The best part is that it is available to the security and forensics community free of cost.Although Backtrack has always been a good tool but its team(s) must be congratulated for not only

Cyber Laws All Over The World Are Becoming Unreasonable And Oppressive

Cyber Laws all over the World are intentionally designed to violate civil rights like privacy, speech and expression, etc. They are also intentionally formulated to facilitate “Internet Censorship” and “E-Surveillance” beyond the legitimate limits of “National Security”. This approach is more dangerous and is detrimental to the national security in the long run.The Google’s episode regarding

National Security And Internal Security Infrastructure Of India

National security of India has recently received a rejuvenation attempt by the Government of India (GOI). This is good news at a time where the national security issues are grossly ignored in India. The national security of India and internal security of India are suffering not only on the count of lack of political will but also due to absence of suitable policies and strategies.The ICT Trends

TECHNO-LEGAL E-LEARNING, HIGHER EDUCATION AND LIFELONG LEARNING CONSORTIUMS AND PARTNERSHIPS

Perry4Law is the First and Exclusive Techno-Legal ICT Law Firm in India and one of the best in the World. Perry4Law Techno-Legal Base (PTLBTM/SM) is managing various Techno-Legal Consultancy, Litigation, Research, E-Learning, Higher Education and many more such “Highly Specialised” and “Domain Specific Services”.Some areas where Perry4Law can collaborate and provide its Specialised Techno-Legal

TECHNO-LEGAL SUPPORT AND TRAINING FOR CRIME AND CRIMINAL TRACKING NETWORK AND SYSTEMS (CCTNS) PROJECT OF INDIA

Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) Project (CCTNS Project) has been approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs. It has a financial cushion of Rs.2000 Crores as per the 11th Five Year Plan. The Project would be initiated by the Ministry of Home Affairs and implemented by the National Crime Records Bureau. The CCTNS project is to be implemented in a manner where the

CRITICAL ICT INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION IN INDIA: NEED OF THE HOUR

In recent years, the frequency and sophistication of cyber security attacks on global Critical Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Infrastructure (Critical ICT Infrastructure) has greatly increased. Cyber-security experts have been warning of the vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure like Power, Energy, Transportation, Water Systems, etc to malicious hackers. Recently hackers have